Timeline of Major Federal Programs for Early Childhood up to 2010

Events

Title I of ESEA

1965

Local education agencies apply to state agencies for approval of the program that is subsequently funded by the federal government. This grant is formula funded.History of ESEA

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was signed into law in 1965 by President Lyndon Baines Johnson, who believed that "full educational opportunity" should be "our first national goal."

ESEA offered new grants to districts serving low-income students, federal grants for text and library books, it created special education centers, and created scholarships for low-income college students. Additionally, the law provided federal grants to state educational agencies to improve the quality of elementary and secondary education.

Head Start

1965

Funded by U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services to provide children from low-income families free access to early education. It also includes children who are at risk and with disabilities.In January of 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared The War on Poverty in his State of the Union speech. Shortly thereafter, Sargent Shriver took the lead in assembling a panel of experts to develop a comprehensive child development program that would help communities meet the needs of disadvantaged preschool children.

Education for All Handicapped Children Act

1975

Increased federalization of education included head start, free lunches, special education students. Huge impact on the public school system.Stated that all physically challenged students are entitled to a fair and appropriate public education. As the courts have interpreted this program, it has led to a large increase in special education classes. Currently, there fight has moved onto mainstreaming of handicapped children in schools.

Even Start

1988

Integrates early childhood education to low-income parents for children, birth through age 7,and integrates adult education and early childhood learning with family literacy programs.This program offers grants to support local family literacy projects that integrate early childhood education, adult literacy (adult basic and secondary-level education and instruction for English language learners), parenting education, and interactive parent and child literacy activities for low-income families with parents who are eligible for services under the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act and their children from birth through age 7. Teen parents and their children from birth through age 7 also are eligible. All participating families must be those most in need of program services.

Child Care Development

1990

The Child Care and Development Fund (assists low-income families, families receiving temporary public assistance, and those transitioning from public assistance in obtaining child care so they can work or attend training/education.The ARRA - CCDBG is a part of the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program, along with Child Care Discretionary Funds (CFDA number 93.575) the Child Care Mandatory and Matching Funds (CFDA number 93.596). This supplemental FY 2009 CCDBG funding was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5). This funding will provide economic stimulus to the nation while furthering the ACF mission to promote the economic and social well being of children, youth, families, and communities.

Early Head Start

1995

Funds programs for low-income families supporting 2 generations, usually mothers and infants and toddlers.The reauthorization of the Head Start Act in 1994 made it possible to establish Early Head Start as a program to serve infants and toddlers under the age of 3, and pregnant women.

No Child Left Behind

2001

Promotes the use of Title I, Part A, to fund pre-school programs, recognizing the importance of preparing children for entering school with language, cognitive and early reading skills.The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) is the most recent iteration of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), the major federal law authorizing federal spending on programs to support K-12 schooling. ESEA is the largest source of federal spending on elementary and secondary education.

Early Reading First

2002

Extends the goals of NCLB under Reading First to preschoolers.The program supports the development of early childhood centers of excellence that focus on all areas of development, especially on the early language, cognitive, and pre-reading skills that prepare children for continued school success and that serve primarily children from low-income families.

Special Education preschool grants and state grants programs 3-5

2002

Part of IDEA funding for preschool students ages 3 to 5.The Preschool Grants program provides formula grants to states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico to make available special education and related services for children with disabilities aged 3 through 5. In order to be eligible for these grants, States must serve all eligible children with disabilities aged 3 through 5 and have an approved application under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A state that does not make a free appropriate public education (FAPE) available to all children with disabilities aged 3 through 5 cannot receive funds under this program or funds attributable to this age range under the Grants to States program. Currently, all states are making FAPE available to all children aged 3 through 5 with disabilities. At their discretion, states may include preschool-aged children who are experiencing developmental delays, as defined by the state and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, who need special education and related services. If consistent with state policy, state and local educational agencies also may use funds received under this program to provide FAPE to 2-year olds with disabilities who will turn 3 during the school year. IDEA requires that, to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are educated with children who are not disabled and that removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes, with the use of supplementary aids and services, cannot be achieve satisfactorily. However, states are not required to provide public preschool programs for the general population. For this reason, preschool-aged children with disabilities are served in a variety of settings, including public or private preschool programs, regular kindergarten, Head Start programs, and childcare facilities.

Special Education Grants for Infants and Families

2007

Part C of IDEA (birth to 2 for children with disabilities)To provide grants to States to assist them to implement and maintain a Statewide, comprehensive, coordinated, multidisciplinary, interagency system to make available early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.