Roman Kingdom and Republic

Roman Kingdom

Founding of Rome

753 B.C.

founded by Romulus on Palatine Hill.


753 B.C. - 716 B.C.

Parents: Rhea Silva and Mars
Founder of Rome
Found the Senate

Numa Pompilius

715 B.C. - 674 B.C.

Established the Vestal Virgins
Found the Temple of Janus
Added days to the calender
43 years of peace during his reign

Tullus Hostilius

673 B.C. - 642 B.C.

Declared war against Alba Longa and Fidenates
Won both battles
Grandson of a Sabine
Died by lightening by Jupiter
Made new senate house

Ancus Marcius

642 B.C. - 617 B.C.

Settled the Aventine Hill
Build Pons Sublician (Sublican Bridge) over the Tiber River

Tarquinius Priscus

616 BC - 579 BC

Aristocratic Etruscan Wife
Defeated the Sabines, Latins, and the Etruscans
Created the Circus Maximas
Created the Sewage System

Destruction of Alba Longa

600 BC

Tullius Hostilius destroyed Alba Longa
WAS one of Rome's enemies

Servius Tullius

578 BC - 535 BC

War with Etruscans and Won
Created the Coinage system and Census
Famous for the street of guilt (vicus scelar atus)

Tarquinius Superbus

535 BC - 510 BC

Used violence and oppression to hold his position
conquered 2 cities
Built and improved roads
Revolution overthrew him and established the republic

Roman Republic


519 BC - 430 BC

Temporary dictator in 458 bc because of a war

The Founding of the Republic

509 B.C.

Censorship established

443 B.C. - 443 BC

Created by Servius Tullius.

First Samnites war

343 BC - 341 BC

Roman victory

Second Samnites war

326 BC - 304 BC

Win for Rome

Third Samnites war

298 BC - 290 BC

Roman victory

Lex Olgunia- Plebeians admitted into priestly offices

296 BC

Law that allows plebs to be in priest hoods
Law was formed by Quintus Ogulnius Gallus

Punic wars

264 BC - 146 BC
  • 1: 264- 241
  • 2: 218- 201
  • 3: 149- 146
  • all roman victories

Hannibal crossing the alps

218 BCE

Crossed the alps in 2 weeks

Gaius Gracchus

154 BC - 121 BC

Wanted land reforms and the government to sell things to the poor at reduced prices

killed with followers in 121 BC

First plebeian consul

133 BC - 121 BC

Tiberius Gracchus
Killed with his supporters
Wanted land reforms

Jugurthine War

118 BC
  • Roman Victory
  • Sulla captured King Jugurtha and ended the war

Julius Caesar

100 BC - 44 BC

Conqueror of Gaul and Master of Italy
Lover of Cleopatra

Sulla Dictator

81 BC

appointed by Senate
first dictator
restored order because he was popular with the senate

First Triumvirate

60 BC - 53 BC
  • Caesar: Popularity
  • Crassus: Money
  • Pompey: Soldiers
  • Crassus died in battle. Pompey got jealous. Caesar and Pompey fight, and Caesar wins.

Consulship of Pompey and Crassus

56 BC - Approx. 49 BC
  • Elected by Senate
  • Caesars cut was 5 years extended office in Gaul

Revolt of Vercingetorix in Gaul

52 BC - 51 BC

Vercingetorix wanted Gaul back
Caesar lost battle of Gergovia
in 51 BC Caesar captures Vercingetorix and conquers Gaul again

Roman Civil War

49 BC - 45 BC

Caesar Vs. Pompey
Caesar Won
Crossing of the Rubicon

Second Triumvirate

43 BC - 33 BC
  • Antony
  • Octavian (Augustus)
  • Lepidus

Octavian defeats Antony (Battle of Actium)

32 BC - 30 BC

Cleopatra and Antony commit suicide
Enable Augustus or Octavian to become sole ruler then Emperor

Augustus becomes Emperor

23 BC

Granted by the Senate
End of Republic