Period 4 Timeline


Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1923

One of the gunpowder empires. The Ottoman Empire started out in central Asia with Muslim Turks and eventually grew to destroy the Byzantine Empire and rule much of the east Mediterranean. This relates to concept 3 because the Ottoman Empire is expanding throughout this time period.

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Chinese dynasty that ruled in between Mongol and Manchu dynasties. The Ming were very focused on keeping China Chinese and were not very excited about foreign trade. This relates to concept 3 because the Ming, like all Chinese states, was one of the most powerful dynasties in the world.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Henry the Navigator was very important to the beginning of the Portuguese empire. He encouraged exploration of the Atlantic and African coast. This relates to concept 1 because eventually Portugal would become a worldwide empire.

Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

1432 - 1481

Mehmed was an Ottoman Sultan who was most famous for taking Constantinople and conquering the Byzantine Empire. This relates to concept 3 because Mehmed enlarged his empire vastly while also destroying another.

Beginning of the Portuguese Slave Trade


Africans work as slaves on a Portuguese sugar plantation for the first time. This relates to concept 2 because slave worked plantations were a new way to produce cash crops.

Songhai Empire

1464 - 1591

The largest and the last great west African Empire, the Songhai controlled trade over the Sahara. It traded salt and gold and became rich and powerful. This relates to concept 1 because the Songhai were the embodiment of trans-saharan trade.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire. He created the largest empire west Africa had ever seen. This relates to concept 3 because under his rule the Songhai became very powerful.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Leader of the Protestant reformation and founder of the Lutheran faith, Martin Luther called out the Catholic hierarchy because he believed that they were not serving their duties correctly. This relates to concept 2 because Lutheranism and all protestant faiths began in the writings of Martin Luther.

Dias' Voyage into the Indian Ocean

1486 - 1488

Bartholomeu Dias was the captain of the first fleet of European ships to ever round Africa and make it into the Indian Ocean. This relates to concept 1 because once Europe made it into Indian Ocean trade they began to globalize their empires.

Columbus' First Voyage


Christopher Columbus' first voyage, in which he accidentally found the American continents while searching for China. This relates to concept 1 because the reunion of the continents was the first step in globalization.

Treaty of Trdesillas


The document created by Spain and Portugal to split the Atlantic Islands between themselves. A line 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands. All that was to the west belonged to Spain and to the East belonged to Portugal. This relates to concept 3 because each country grew from the lands that they took from the treaty.

Safavid Empire

1501 - 1736

Another gunpowder empire, the Safavid ruled over Persia in this time period. This relates to concept 3 because the Safavid came together to form an empire and stood strong without being conquered.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

The founder of Calvinism, John Calvin was at the forefront of the Protestant reformation in France. This relates to concept 2 because he created the Calvinist community.

Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs

1519 - 1521

Conquering the Aztecs was very important to Spanish expansion and colonization. It was the destruction of one of the most powerful states ever in the Americas. This relates to concept 3 because without the Aztec, Spain was free to expand into Mexico.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Suleyman was the longest ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was known as an enlightening ruler and he also lead armies to gain more land for his empire. This relates to concept 3 because he expanded the Ottoman Empire.

Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1857

The Mughal Dynasty was a gunpowder empire that ruled over most of India at its height. The empire was Muslim ruled though most of its population was Hindu. This relates to concept 3 because the Mughal Empire was a powerful state in this time period.

Spanish Conquest of the Incas

1532 - 1572

When the Spanish conquered the Incas they effectively destroyed the largest empire to ever exist in the Americas before it was discovered by Europe. This relates to concept 3 because Spain could not have expanded so much into South America without conquering the Inca.

Foundation of the Society of Jesus


A Catholic society formed in the time of the Protestant reformation for the purpose of finding converts to Catholicism. This relates to concept 2 because it is a social organization with the task of expanding Catholic power.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

A reaction to the protestant reformation. The Council of Trent was brought together to try to counter protestant reformers and take people back to the Catholic faith.

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

Akbar was the most influential emperor of the Mughal dynasty. He is known for his religious tolerance in a land with much diversity in that regard. This relates to concept 3 because during his rule Akbar expanded and improved the Mughal Dynasty.

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1562 - 1620

He was the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Instead of ruling his empire, he indulged himself in luxuries and fine foods and wines. At the end of his rule peasants were revolting and eventually forces from Manchuria invaded and conquered. This relates to concept 3 because Wanli was the end of the Ming and allowed the Qing to combine Manchu and Chinese into one Empire.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

One of the leaders of the scientific revolution, Galileo discovered that the universe was much larger and more complex than previously thought. He lead the way for great minds like Isaac Newton. This relates to concept 2 because the scientific revolution created a much larger group of scientists around the world.

The Spanish Armada


A fleet of 130 Spanish ships sent to invade England. This relates to concept 3 because Spain was hoping to expand.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603 - 1868

Government in Japan in this time period. The Shogun was the military leader and made most of the important political decisions. This relates to concept 3 because The Tokugawa Shogunate was another large state in the world at this time.

30 Years' War

1618 - 1648

A war, mostly fought in Germany, between protestant rebels and the Holy Roman Empire. Also in the war were Austria, Spain and anyone else who wanted more land and were willing to take it from the HRE. This relates to concept 3 because the fighting eventually lead to the peace of Westphalia.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

One of the greatest enlightened thinkers. He apposed strongly the idea of absolute monarchies and believed that the people should have more power. This relates to concept 3 because his writings influenced state leaders around Europe.

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

The Manchu ruled Chinese dynasty that replaced the Ming. Although it was ruled by foreign people, the emperors used mostly Chinese ideas and techniques to rule over the land. This relates to concept 3 because the Qing expanded the previous state ruled by China.

Peace of Westphalia


A series of peace treaties signed by the powers of Europe to keep the continent somewhat peaceful. This relates to concept 3 because it affected all the great powers of Europe while they were trying to expand.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

A war mostly between European powers throughout the world in there many global colonies. In the end, Britain and its allies won, setting it up for dominance in the worldwide game. This relates to concept 3 because the war was fought by Europeans and their colonies for the ability to expand more.

Establishment of the First Colony in Australia


The establishment of the first European colony in Australia. Britain populated this colony with convicts as a punishment because the land was disliked because it wasn't very fertile.

End of British Slave Trade


The slave trade abolition act of 1807 made slave trade illegal, however did not abolish slavery itself. This relates to concept 1 because it slowed and eventually stopped the triangle slave trade in the Atlantic.