Seven Popes in Avignon, France. Five most notable are...
Pope Clement V
- French dominated the
- extended papal taxes
- start of their reputation of materialism and corruption
Pope John XXII
- tried to restore independence and return to Rome
- gained many enemies in the process
- Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV and the Visconti, a ruling family in Milan who didn't want the papacy to return to Rome
Pope Benedict XII
- tried to reform both papal government and religious life
Pope Clement VI
- start of the selling of indulgences
Pope Urban V
- returned to rome until 1370 when moved back to Avignon
Between France and England. Caused by: 1. English King Edward III asserted his claim of the French throne after Charles IV died with no heirs. The French chose Philip VI of Valois for the throne. 2. The King of England was a vassal of the king of France and he had some large territories there -- the french nobility did not like this. 3. The French was weak; they had some economic troubles, an inferior military, and mediocre (and shrewd) leadership from the monarchs. The War was won by the French and resulted with England permanently losing most of its major possessions on the continent.
Began the Renaissance in Italy:
1. Fall of Constantinople in 1453
2. End of the Hundreds Year War in 1453
3. The New Technology
a. printing press
After Pope Gregory XI died , the italian cardinals elected the italian archbishop as Pope Urban VI. He wanted to reform the curia, the corrupt papal court.
The French cardinals wanted to return the papacy to Avignon so they elected Pope Clement VII, a cousin of the supportive french King Charles V.
Pope Urban VI - supported by England and its allies (Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland)
Pope Clement VII - supported by France and its allies (Naples, Scotland, Castile, and Aragon)
At the Council of Pisa a new pope was elected: Alexander V. The other two popes did not agree to step down even after most of Western Europe believed that Alexander was the legitimate pope.
After a couple of years and new succeeding popes, the Council of Constance was called by Emperor Sigismund. The dispute over the popes had to be solved and it resulted in one Pope - Martin V.
This ended the Great Schism
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe.
Caused by The Great Schism, Avignon Papacy, Black Death, Secular Humanism, The Age of Discovery, previous criticism of the church, new technology, and the shift of power to northern Europe. The turning point is the decision to build a new St. Peters by increasing the taxes and corruption. Starts with Luther's 95 Theses and ends with the Thirty Years' War in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia
Period of Scientific Growth where many ‘natural philosophers’ studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.
Started with Bismarck appointment of Chalncellor
The bubonic plague, caused by fleas on rats on trade routes over land and seas, caused about 1/3 of the European population to die.
It was caused by the increase of the "taille" rate, which is the mandatory tax on peasants. This was during the Hundred Years War.
The English Parliament passes a Statute of Laborers which set low prices for farm laborers and limited their ability to leave their masters land. They were led by John Ball and Wat Tyler. The peasants joined together to demand privileges.
Books were rapidly produced for very cheap on religious as well as practical topics.
This increased the literary rate and allowed for religious and political propaganda.
This was due to Luther's teachings. Luther did not support this because he needed support from the princes. He then urged the princes to try and stop the revolt. After the revolt, the princes banded together to form the Schmaldkaldic League. It was to pre are against the Catholic emperor.
ends Napoleonic Wars
Wrote the Divine Comedy .
He was far less secular than Petrach.
He is considered the "father of humanism"
He revived Greek and Roman manuscripts.
He invented the sonnet form of poetry.
Wrote the Decameron which is a social commentary about sexual and economic misconduct.
His followers, the Lollards, and he criticized the secularism of the papacy, the selling of indulgences, the papal infallibility, and the dogma of transubstantiation. He believed in merit rather than rank and office was important.
He was accused of heresy and was executed
His followers, the Hussites, and he supported vernacular translations of the Bible and criticized several aspects of the Eucharist.
John Huss was excommunicated then 5 years later accused of heresy and was executed.
He was the first to give the name "humanities" to the studies of humanism. He believed in history, oration, rhetoric/grammar, and poetry.
Wanted gold and spices (cloves and pepper). Also the Portuguese wanted slaves.
He found a safe route around the top of Africa to Asia.
He was a humanist who used textual analysis and historical logic to expose historical hoaxes. One example was that he proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery and was not written in the 300s but actually the 700s.
In March of 1429, she presented herself to the French declaring that God had sent her. She helped French Victory but was later captured and executed by the English. She was known for her siege of Orleans.
Bartholomew Dias pioneered the eastern Portuguese empire after safely going around Cape Good Hope, the top of Africa.
He was an advisor to the French King Frances I.
Painted the "Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa."
He used a lot of perspective and was skilled at conveying moods through facial expressions.
He advocated scientific discoveries.
He criticized the church and its traditions. Including the Eucharist which he called a superstition. He criticized them by calling them folly or unnatural. He didn't want a new church just to reform it. He believed the Bible was the best way to reform individual
He wanted to unite classical ideas of virtue and humanity with the christian ideas of love and piety.
Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon Marriage:
United France and Portugal
Conquered many kingdoms
Spain was once a rare melting pot of Jews, Christians, and Muslims but became a christian nation. They created the shining example of a state-controlled religion.
They made Spain the supreme power in Europe in the 1500s through overseas exploration.
He reached the stores of India. When he returned, he carried spices that were cost 60x more than the actual voyage.
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.
He is famous for his 18 foot statue of David, which was very important because of its proportions. He also painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Most famous for his work of "Utopia"
- depicts an imaginary society based on reason and tolerance where all property was held in common
He was one of Henry VIII's most trusted diplomats until he criticized the Act of Supremacy, which made Henry VIII pope of his own church, and was executed.
Famous for portrayals of Madonna and his "School of Athens which depicts Plato and Aristotle surrounded by other great philosophers and scientists.
Wrote the 95 Theses, which started the Protestant Reformation. He believed that faith and faith alone (sola fide) is all that was needed for salvation.
Reformation in Switzerland. He was inspired by Erasmus. He opposed to the sale of indulgences and religious superstition. He advocated for the rights of clergy to legally marry.
He disagreed with Luther over the Eucharist. Luther believed in its physical presence while Zwingli believed in its spiritual/symbolic presence.
Created the Church of England to divorce Catherine of Aragon
Act of Succession in 1534 - Any of Anne Boleyn's Children can be heir.
Act of Supremacy in 1534 - Declared that Henry was the only supreme head to the church of England.
Father to Mary, Edward VI, and Elizabeth.
in 1549, Thomas Cranmer published the Book of Common Prayer. It taught justification by faith, approved only 2 sacraments, and that images from alter pieces should be removed.
AKA Bloody Mary
Protestants fled or were executed during her reign. Thomas Cranmer was among those protestants.
Married Phillip II of Spain who signed never to take the English throne.
1559 Act of Supremacy - repeal all anti-protestant legislation under Mary I. Also asserted Elizabeth at supreme governor and not head (because she was a woman).
He published the Persian Letters, where he satirized contemporary institutions. He exposed and criticized the cruelty and irrationality of European life.
He introduced the division of power in government, where authority was distributed (executive, legislature, and judicial branches). He believed that the branches provided each other with checks and balances to ensure that no other branch had higher power.
An italian economist who condemned torture and capital punishments.
begins the feminist movement with the "Vindication of Rights of Women"
All the cardinals came together and elected a new Pope: Alexander V.
Emperor Sigismund demanded that John XXII call all the popes and resolve this. This Council resulted in the election of one pope and the other three were forced to resign.
Pico della Mirandola writes that we pick our destiny and that humans have the liberty to determine the the form and value of our lives. This idea is a key element in the formation of the modern outlook. This work is important because it sepicts humans with free will
The Prince, written by Machiavelli, is a letter about politics (getting it, keeping it, and loosing it). He encourages rulers to use fraud and deceit to maintain power. He writes that politics = payoff and how he should balance his power, like between a fox and a lion. He states that "it is better to be feared than loved."
Luther's public protest of indulgences. He posted it on the door of a castle church in Wittenberg, Germany.
The start of the Protestant Reformation.
A meeting, overseen by Charles V, where Luther was was ordered to recant his works. He presented his views to them and refused to recant because that would be against scripture, reason, and his conscience. That same year he was excommunicated and declared an outlaw. However Frederick hides him in his castle for about a year.
It was called by Charles V. It was to address the Protestant vs. Catholic religious division in the empire. The Catholic Emperor, Charles V, demanded that all Lutherans revert to Catholicism. The Lutherans responded by forming the Schmalkaldic League, which was an alliance of Lutherans who opposed this policy.
Part of the Counter-Reformation. It didn't really do anything besides reconfirm dogmas and doctrines. However the Council of Trent did force bishops to spend more time in their territories rather than in Rome.
A religious division of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutherans to the north and Catholics to the south. The princes were left to decide the religion of their territory. Pope did not have central power. This peace did not recognize Calvinists or Anabaptists.
Ends French Religious Wars
ends Thirty Years' War
Candide, authored by Voltaire, is a smart and sarcastic satirical affaire. -- creds to Julius
Written by Rousseau.
He rejects the principle that one person had a natural authority over others. He believed in a absolute monarchy and in this contract, he sought to provide a theoretical foundation for political liberty.
ended 7 years' war
Written by Beccaria. He used critical analysis to the issue of making laws fair.
The Partition of Poland was the dividing poland into three where Russia, Prussia, and Austria received land while poland lost power as an independent country.
Written by Thomas Jefferson
Adopted by the National Assembly. This Declaration expressed the liberal and universal ideals of the Enlightenment. It proclaimed that sovereignty derives from the people and that all men are born free and equal in rights.
Written by Olympe de Gouges.
The catholic church was reinstated into France by Napoleon to restore the civil status.
Associated with the Italian Renaissance
Art that highlights daily life using still lives, or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasized peasant life.
Style of art that was very grand and furnished. Very ornate.
Art that was painted in the classical Greek and Roman style, depicting contemporary scenes.
French style similar to the ornate baroque.