The Songhay's Empire relied purely on trade, mainly gold trade. The trade existed due to the standing armies at different trading areas, and helped to contribute to the wealth of these areas because of the safety it provided.
Prince Henry the Navigator
1394 - 1460
Prince Henry the Navigator was responsible for the start of Portuguese exploration, and trade with other continents, the start of globalized trading. The Portuguese explored Western Africa, Atlantic Islands, and search for new routes to China.
Beginning of Portuguese slave trade
Slave trade was one of the main reason the silver trade and global trade became profitable because the slave were cheaper, at this time, than paid workers. The Portuguese used slaves in their silver mines and the silver was then trade and used in other places like China to get luxury goods. The slave trade network and silver network were the some of the first global networks.
Dias' voyage into Indian Ocean
Bartolomeu was a Portuguese explorer, and the first know sailor to go into the Indian ocean from the Atlantic Ocean by rounding the tip of Africa. He sparked new exploration and trade in the Indian Ocean.
Columbus' first voyage
Columbus' first voyage was the start of globalization and global trade. After the Spanish discovery of the Americas other countries started to send explorations out and develop colonies and take over the Americas. The Europeans in the Americas gathered wealth out of the Americas and used it to trade with other areas of the world.
Spanish Conquest of Mexico
The Spanish conquest of Mexico created a global communication and trade network between Europe, The Americas, Africa and Asia. The Spanish got slaves from Africa and brought them to The Americas where they farmed and worked in silver mine. The Silver and other goods were the traded around the world, especially in Asia for luxury goods.
1603 - 1868
Tokugawa Shogunate was the last feudal military government in Japan. The First Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate was Tokugawa Ieyasu, he banned Christianity and rules after him created more laws banning foreign influences.
End of British slave trade
Slave trade ended for the British by an Act in the parliament to end all slave trade but particularly Atlantic slave trade. This ended the moving of slaves from Africa to other places but because of the trade networks already established there was still global trade even with out slaves which is a major turning point in history.
1368 - 1644
The Ming Dynasty can be categorized in either group 4.2 or 4.3 because of their expansions and their changing of social classes with soldiers. The rulers wanted to created a permanent class for the soldiers, to strengthen the dynasties extensive army and navy.
1483 - 1546
Martin Luther started the reformation of Christianity and the separation of many new religious sectors, still christian but not Catholic. The separation started when he question the selling of indulgences, that lead to many questionings for the Pope and eventually the new sectors of Christianity separated the Pope from political power in many places.
Treaty of Tordesillas
The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the new lands that the Spanish and Portuguese had discovered in to a part for each of them. In these areas they were both very productive in the retrieving of goods through the production systems that they used to farm and in silver mines. They used slave labor and natives labor through debt systems.
1509 - 1564
John Calvin was a protestant reformer and the founder of Calvinism. He helped to change the social standards and by creating a new religion he and other reformers limited the power of the Pope.
1526 - 1707
The Mughal Dynasty had control over India for two Centuries, with its effective rule and organization the Mughal Dynasty was very successful. they also managed to help unite and integrate Hindus and Muslims.
Foundation of Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a group of male Christians called Jesuits who work in education, research, and cultural pursuit. Jesuits were spiritual leaders and had exercises to help people follow Jesus Christ. These men were a new addition to the social classes of Europe and and created more Christian followers.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
The Council of Trent was a Roman Catholic ecumenical council provoked by the Protestant Reformation in efforts to end the reformation.
1564 - 1642
Galileo was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher, and he had major effect in the scientific revolution during the renaissance period in Europe.
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
The Thirty Years Wars happened in Central Europe, initially wars over religion, between Protestant and Catholic State in the Holy Roman Empire. As the wars continued the conflict shifted to be between the powers of Europe. The war devastated the Low Countries and created hard ships for every class in most countries.
1632 - 1704
John Locke was an English Philosopher who is known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". He was a very influential man and created knew thoughts in Europe because he was a very influential Enlightenment thinker.
1299 - 1922
The Ottoman dynasty was expanding and growing particularly in the years known as Pax Ottomana. The Ottoman dynasty lead campaigns in to Europe and the Mediterranean, Suleyman I was able to hold power over other territories and keep the wealth of the Ottoman Dynasty.
Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror
1444 - 1446
Mehmed the Conqueror was the leader that lead the Turks in to conquering Constantinople, and lead them to take over many other areas. The Ottoman dynasty became the power that it was because of their expansions and that they were able to control some of Europe and the Mediterranean. Mehmed expanded his dynasty around the black sea, and north, east and west of Constantinople.
Reign of Sunni Ali
1464 - 1492
Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhay empire, during his reign they were able to conquer many areas and surpass the height of the Mali empire.
1502 - 1736
The Safavid dynasty was a gunpowder dynasty which means that it only really was wealthy because of its expansions. When gunpowder dynasties can no longer expand their wealth decreases and the decline as a dynasty.
Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent
1520 - 1566
Under Suleymans lead the Ottoman empire conquered many Christian strong holds, also Hungary. He expanded his empire into parts of the middle east and the Mediterranean sea with his powerful military.
Spanish Conquest of Incas
1532 - 1572
The Spanish Conquest of Incas is an example of Spanish and European expansion during the age of Discovery. Many European countries colonized and over took the lands in the Americas after their discovery and created more wealth for themselves.
Reign of Akbar
1556 - 1605
Akbar was a ruler over the Mughal Dynasty, Akbar translates to meaning the great because he is thought to me a great leader. He managed to interrogate Hindus and Muslims.
Reign of Emperor Wanli
1573 - 1620
Emperor Wanli was known for defending China successfully agents three major wars during his reign. He was able to do this because of the strong military he had.
The Spanish Armada was a fleet of ship set out to invade England and over through Queen Elizabeth.
1644 - 1912
The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China. The territory claimed by the Qing was much larger the that of the Ming Dynasty because of their expansions and population growth. The Qing had a strong military and was able to expand into what is now Mongolia.
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed to end the Thirty Years War. Although the treaties did not restore peace they did allow co-existing sovereign states and national self-determination. It ended major wars in Europe and the time after was relatively peaceful.
Seven Years War
1754 - 1763
The Seven Years War also know as the French and Indian War, was fought between the British settlers in America and The Fresh Settlers along side of some Native American allies. It was mainly a conflict of land and because each side was backed by their native countries it was resolved by a treaty in Paris.
Establishment of the 1st Colony in Australia
The first Colony of Australia is another example of British expansionism and their drive to colonize new land. The British arrived in Sydney, as they explored the land they established more colonies.