Period 4 Timeline 1450-1750 C.E
Henry the Navigator was a Portuguese prince who set the foundations for Atlantic exploration. His main goals of it were to spread Christianity and Portuguese influence. For this he receives 4.1 for starting globalized sailing and 4.3 for increasing Portugal's influence.
Martin Luther was the first man to publicly question the Roman Church with his "95 theses" From this he created a new form of Protestant Christianity called Lutherism, which is now a very large religion. For this he receives 4.2 for creating a new religion.
Dias' voyage down to the tip of Africa was monumental. It opened Europeans to the vast economies of the west via ocean and also implemented Portugal's' naval dominance. For that it receives 4.1 for opening up ocean trade to the west and 4.3 for making Portugal a known naval power and kick starter to naval voyages.
The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty between the Spanish and Portuguese in South America over land. The treaty called for a split of land on the north-south line 370. This treaty helped make sure no misunderstandings would take place over land ownership. Therefore it deserves 4.3 for Spanish and Portuguese consolidation in the New World.
John Calvin was a Frenchman who was a large player in the Reformation in France and Switzerland. Due to the French not liking Protestant religion, Calvin migrated to Switzerland, where he set up a Protestant community in Geneva. This became a model for Protestants and he started Calvinism which is a major branch of Protestant to this day. For this he receives 4.2 for setting for a new religious group and 4.3 expanding the Protestant religion.
The Society of Jesus was founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, who put his work towards religion while recovering from an injury. The society was known for its very rigorous education its members much complete. Due to this they became masters of religious works and could outargue anyone in religious debates, making them exceptional missionaries. Kings hired the Jesuits to promote politics that rewarded the church. Due to their missions the society receives 4.1 for globalizing Christianity, 4.2 for creating a new social organization and 4.3 for expansion of the churches power.
The Council of Trent was an assembly of bishops, cardinals and church officials from the Roman Catholic Church. There main task was to talk about matters of doctrine and reform. They drew a lot of their inspiration from St. Thomas Aquinas. The council receives 4.3 for reforming parts of the Catholic church in order to regain followings following the Reformation.
Galileo is an Italian astronomer who is known for many great finds. For example he found out that the sun and moon were not smooth but had texture to them, that Jupiter had 4 moons and also caught sight of unknown stars using the telescope, which made people realize the universe was much bigger. For these discoveries Galileo receives 4.2 for setting the stage for new modes of production in the astronomy field.
The Spanish Armada was the result of religious war between the British and Spanish. The Spanish under the control of Phillip II were order to attack Britain in attempt to convert them back to the Roman Catholic Church. The Spanish Armada consisted of 130 ships with 30,000 men aboard. This event receives 4.3 for the Roman Church trying to regain its control over Europe.
The Thirty Years' War was the ultimate clash of religious battles in Europe. It started when the Holy Roman Emperor forced his Bohemian subjects back to Roman Catholic. After not complying war broke out, mainly in the German area. By the end Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish and Polish forces all had their fair share of fighting in it as well. This war was the most destructive conflict in Europe before the 20th century. For this, the Thirty Years' War deserves 4.3 for the Holy Roman Empire trying to regain religious power.
John Locke was a English philosopher who worked to discover the natural laws of politics. He fought against divine-right theories that were the foundation of the absolute monarchies and helped establish the basis for constitutional monarchies in England. For that he receives 4.2 for creating a new government form.
This treaty marked the end of the Thirty Years War between European states and marked the beginning of small independent European states. It was important because it set up the basis for many European countries today. For this it receives 4.3 for state consolidation in Europe.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict that was fought due to commercial and political differences. It took place in Europe, India, the Caribbean and North America. It had deep impact on England because it lead to British hegemony for 150 years. In Europe the battle was Britain and Prussia vs. France, Austria and Russia. In India it was British against France for Indian Ocean influence. In the Caribbean it was Spanish and French against British expansion in the New World. In North America it was British and French fighting. The Seven Years' War receives 4.1 for globalizing communications for countries ex: Spanish and French alining. Also 4.3 for the imperial expansion of the winning countries in battle.
The end of slavery occurred in 1807 when the Slave Trade Act of 1807 was passed by British Parliament. The act abolished slave trade in the British Empire, however it didn't end slavery until 26 years later. By doing this, the British influenced others to end slave trade. It receives 4.1 for globalizing their message of ending slave trade.
The Ottoman Dynasty was longest surviving Islamic dynasty, lasting over 600 years the Ottoman Dynasty expanded greatly during that time. It was ruled under many great leaders like Osman, Mehmed the Conqueror and Suleyman. They receive 4.3 for imperial expansion of the Islamic religion and for being the precursors to the country of Turkey.
The Ming Dynasty the Chinese Dynasty following the Yuan or Mongol dynasty. They were know for a very strict centralized government, reviving the economy and naval expansion. For that they receive 4.1 for globalizing trade and communications through Zheng He's Expeditions, 4.2 for the social spilt between Mandarins and Eunuchs and 4.3 for bringing China under rule again.
Mehmed the conqueror was in charge when the Ottoman empire sacked Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. He proclaimed himself ruler of "two lands", those being Asia and Europe. Following this he imposed a centralized , absolute monarchy having no serious rivals. He continued to conquer in his life going after Serbia, Greece, Albania and Crimea. He receives 4.2 for creating an absolute monarchy and 4.3 for expanding the Ottoman Empire.
The Safavid Dynasty was an Islamic dynasty that was founded by Shah Ismail, a 12 year old boy. To be more specific the followers of the empire believed in the Twelver Shiism, which was the belief that following Muhammad there were twelve leaders of islam. They were known for wearing red hats when they went into battle, which they were quite good at. During their reign they captured the Iranian plateau and had expeditions in other parts of the Middle East and Asia. For this they receive 4.3 for imperial expansion.
Suleyman the Magnificent was a ruler of the Safavid dynasty. Besides being known for wearing a wicked hat, Suleyman helped expand the dynasty greatly. He expanded it into the regions of southwest Asia, north of the Danube. Under his rule the dynasty also became a well powered naval power in the Mediterranean, Indian and Red Sea. He receives 4.3 for this.
The Mughal Dynasty was founded by Babur, who claimed to have been related to Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. Under his control the Mughal Dynasty took their gunpowder artillery and military tactics and took over India. However the real work was done under Akbar (1556-1605) he made a centralized government for the empire, expanded his empire and also fused rocky relationships between Hindus and Muslims. The Mughal Dynasty deserves concepts 4.2 for organizing a government society and 4.3 for expanding the Mughal state from its beginning.
Akbar was a ruler of the Mughal dynasty. He is known for creating a centralized government with ministries in each provinces, military expansion, yet at the same time a very tolerant man. He created policies to reduce tensions between Hindu and Muslims. For this he deserves 4.2 for helping different religions bond and 4.3 for improving Mughal government and expanding its power.
Emperor Wanli was one of the reasons the Ming dynasty collapsed. Already in trouble Wanly, didn't help by living in the Forbidden City drinking wine all day calling for the eunuchs to do his work. For this he receives 4.3 for carrying on the Ming dynasty in its dying days.
Between this time period, the Ieyasu shogun ruled. Their aim was to stabilize their realm and to prevent from a civil war taking place in Japan. The shoguns had to control the daimyo, who were powerful lords throughout the land as well. To do this the Tokugawa Shogunate encouraged the daimyo to move to Edo, the center government position and work for the shogun in the Tokugawa court. The main purpose of this was to keep the daimyo from having foreign relations, during this time period it was proving successful. For these reasons the Tokugawa Shogunate receives 4.2 for enabling a new form of social organization in Japan through governance and 4.3 for bringing Japan under stronger rule.
The Qing dynasty was formed from a bunch of Manchus nomads in northern China who overthrow the Ming. Kangxi and Qianlong were two important rulers of the dynasty. Kangxi was a strong supporter of Confucian education and greatly helped expand Qing through military conquest. Since both these rulers were Manchus they sought to protect there identity and keep southern Chinese from trying to take pieces of their culture. For these reasons the Qing dynasty receives 4.3 for expansion of the dynasty.
Columbus' first voyage was a monumental move in world history. It was the start of oceanic travel to a new continent, inspired others to do the same and started the Columbian Exchange. The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of ideas, animals, peoples, crops and culture between Europe, the New World and Africa. For that it receives 4.1 for the Columbian Exchange, 4.2 for forming colonies in the New World and 4.3 for expanding the power of Spain.
The Spanish conquest of Mexico and the Aztecs was a very quick job for the Spanish and was headed by Hernan Cortes. This conquest was important to the Spanish because it allowed them to take control of silver mines and eventually make Mexico the Spanish speaking country it is today. For that it receives 4.1 for globalizing the exchange of silver and 4.3 expansion of Spain.
The Spanish conquest of the Incas can be credited to Francisco Pizarro. Even though he had a small army, he and his men tore through the empire. Once seizing control of the area the Spanish began to gather as much golf and silver as possible. This event receives concept 4.3 for expanding the imperial state of Spain in the Americas.
The drive for slaves in Brazil, which was controlled by the Portuguese was caused by the sugar industry. Since fighting and foreign diseases killed off the indigenous work force the Portuguese look to Africa. The slaves were sent to work at the engenhos, which was a sugar plantation. The need for slaves was high because the work was extremely rigorous and the conditions were harsh. Yet, the payoff of slaves was huge and between 1600 to 1650 Brazil's largest export was sugar. This sparked concepts 4.1 for enabling exchange for slaves in Africa and 4.3 for expanding Brazil's presence and making it a valuable economy.
The establishment of the 1st colony of Australia was in 1788 by a British fleet carrying 1,000 passengers. How every of the 1,000 passengers 800 of them were convicts. During the first few years the population didn't expand much, however in the 19th and 20th century the population expanded. The establishment of the 1st colony has concepts 4.1 for globalizing Europe s presence in Australia and 4.3 for setting up colonies in Australia.
The Songhay Empire was the next big empire following the fall of Mali. It was founded by Sunni Ali, who used military tactics to take control of important trading cities. Its cities became trade and Islamic centers where many people visited. However in 1591 Moroccans defeated them and small kingdoms were established in its place. For this it receives 4.3 for expanding and becoming one of Africa's biggest empires.
Sunni Ali was a ruler of the Songhay empire and his task was to bring important trading cities under his control, which he did with Timbuktu and Jenne. He also set in place a centralized government with overseers in each province, navy that controlled the Niger River and had become a devout Muslim, but also practice traditional African religion. For this he receives 4.3 for expanding the Songhay in land area and also in power.