600 - 1450


Silla dynasty

57 BCE - 935 CE

One of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the world's longest sustained dynasties. the dynasty was ruled by the Gyeongju Kim clan for most of its 992-year history. Buddhism flourished and many temples were erected.

Kingdom of Ghana

300 - 1200

When Europe began minting coins during the 1200s, Ghana’s gold gained in value and became a major supplier of gold to the world. Much trading was done across the trans-Saharan trade route as iron and copper were more useful/ valuable to Africans than gold. Food production was not able to keep us with the growing population, which contributed to the empire’s downfall.

First Bubonic Plague Pandemic


Ravaged the Byzantine Empire and killed approximately 50 million people. Was named the Plague of Justinian – after emperor Justinian who survived the plague.


570 - 632

Believed by Muslims, Babists, and Baha’s to be a messenger and prophet of God. He is considered by Muslims as the last prophet sent by God to mankind; non-Muslims regard him as the founder of Islam. He unified Arabia into a single religious state under Islam.

Umayyad dynasty

661 - 750

Marked the first Islamic Dynasty after the death of Muhammad. The region ruled by this dynasty spanned from Arabia to modern day Eastern Iran. Throughout its existence, the Dynasty experienced significant conquests in Northern Africa, Spain, and Central Asia, thus, spreading the Islamic religion and culture.

Nara period

710 - 794

Most of Japanese society during this period was agricultural in nature and centered on villages and Buddhism were highly developed. Nara, the country’s first permanent capital, was modeled on the Chinese T’ang dynasty. Nara artisans produced refined Buddhist sculpture and erected grand Buddhist temples. A network of roads connected the capital with remote provinces.

Abbasid dynasty

750 - 1258

Established a great capital at Baghdad and presided over the golden age of classical Islamic culture. The caliphs provided peace and stability throughout the Islamic empire. Cultural advancement was high, and Muslim manufacturers were among the most skilled in the world. Most famous leader of this dynasty: Haroun al-Rashid.

Reign of Charlemagne

768 - 814

Medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814. He tried to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity. In 800, Pope Leo III (750-816) crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans.

Heian period

794 - 1185

Considered the golden age in pre-modern Japanese history. During this time, the Emperor lost political power but remained a symbolic figurehead. Kyoto, the capital of Japan was known as Heian at the time and was a major center of Buddhist worship and scholarship.

Kingdom of Angkor


Located in Cambodia, this city was established by King Jayavarman II.

Song dynasty

960 - 1279

The Song dynasty is divided into two dynasties: the Northern Song(960–1127) and Southern Song(1127–1279). The Song Empire became the world’s most heavily urbanized society – home to the largest cities on earth, and the world’s busiest trading centers.

Schism between eastern and western Christian Church


Known as the Great Schism. Pope Leo IX excommunicated Orthodox Patriarch Michael Cerularius for “trying to humiliate and crush the holy catholic and apostolic church.” The Patriarch then excommunicated Pope Leo. This mutual excommunication marks the formal break between Eastern and Western Christianity.

Saljuq control over Abbasid dynasty


Under the leadership of Tughril, Muslim Seljuk Turks invade Abbasid territory and capture Baghdad.

Norman invasion of England


Began with the invasion of England by William the Conqueror.

The Norman conquest was a pivotal event in English history. It largely removed the native ruling class, replacing it with a foreign, French-speaking monarchy, aristocracy, and clerical hierarchy. This, in turn, brought about a transformation of the English language and the culture of England in a new era often referred to as Norman England.

First Crusade

1096 - 1099

Sparked when the Byzantine Empire asked Christians in Europe for military assistance against Seljuk Turks, who had capture Jerusalem. A massive army of Crusaders traveled to Constantinople, then through the Middle East, fighting Muslims. They took Jerusalem in 1099 and killed almost every Muslim and Jew in Jerusalem.

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

The sack of Christian Constantinople. This marked the decline of the Byzantine Empire.

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 - 1526

The various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210–1526). The kingdom was established by Central Asian Turkish warlords. The political style of the rulers of Delhi reflected traditional concepts of Persian kingship.

Mongol conquest of all of China

1211 - 1279

Led by the Mongol Genghis Kahn and his sons, the Mongals steadily accumulated territory and captured almost all of western and northern China. This was the first time in history that the whole of China was conquered and subsequently ruled by a foreign or non-native ruler.

Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe

1220 - 1450

This kingdom was located in the territory of modern-day Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe means, “stone dwelling” and this city is famous for its capital, Great Zimbabwe, where there were very large stone structures.

Mali Empire

1250 - 1450

At the time, the biggest and most powerful Islamic state in western sub-Saharan Africa. It was located along an important north-south trade route along the Niger River basin and was a key center for trade in western and northern Africa. Mali’s products included gold, salt, ivory, animal skins and slaves.

Reign of Kublai Khan

1260 - 1294

He called himself the Great Khan of the Mongols but he and his leaders adapted to the Chinese ways, including adopting Buddhism. He can be considered the re-unifier of China as a single state.

Marco Polo's trip to China

1269 - 1293

A merchant traveler who took a 24-year epic trip to China and Asia. His travels are recorded in the book, “Book of the Marvels of the World” (or The Travels of Marco Polo). He was not this first European to travel to China, but his book introduced Europeans to central Asia and China. He dictated the book while in prison.

Yuan dynasty

1271 - 1368

The empire/dynasty led by Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson. As a mighty state, the Yuan Dynasty enjoyed economic development and prospered in the fields of science and literature. The economy was mainly based on agriculture.

Ibn Battuta

1304 - 1369

A Moroccan explorer who is known for his extensive travels. He provided guidance regarding the ways of Islam for those who were recently converted.

Reign of Mansa Musa

1312 - 1337

Tenth emperor of the wealthy Mali empire. s known mostly for his fabulous pilgrimage to Mecca and for his promotion of unity and prosperity within Mali.

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Significantly impacted England and France. Until the early 1400’s English won several victories. France finally drove the English out, however which helped the French kings to centralize their power at home.

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Followed the collapse of the Yuan dynasty and was one of the longest-lasting and most famous dynasty in the China’s history. Established by Hongwu and then led by his son, Yongle. Yongle transformed Beijing into a magnificent capital by building the Forbidden City, which served as the seat of government and still exists today.

Tamerlane (reign of)

1370 - 1405

Tamerlane (or Timur) was a Turko-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia. He led military campaigns across Asia and emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world. From these conquests he founded the Timurid Empire, although it fragmented shortly after his death. He is considered the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian steppe.

Zheng He's expeditions

1405 - 1433

Zheng led even ocean expeditions for the Ming emperor. Destinations from China included Southeast Asia, India's southwest coast, Persian Gulf, and even the east coast of Africa. Voyages included huge “treasure” ships and tens of thousands of sailors and other passengers. It would not be until World War I that such an armada would be assembled again.

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

The largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The empire center was located in modern-day Peru. Elaborate roads (13,000 miles) enabled communication. The official language was Quechua. The ruler, the “Great Inca” was considered the “child of the sun” – a sacred descendant of the sun god.

Fall of Constantinople


Ottoman armies, let by Sultan Mehmet II, used the world’s largest/most advanced gunpowder artillery to capture Constantinople. This ended the 1100-year history of the Byzantine empire.