period 4



1289 - 1923

The ottoman empire was an extremely long lasting power. Not only was it long lasting, it had an unbroken family succession line.the ottoman empire connects with 4.3 because its a consolidation of power, or state, and the empire expands out of iuts native ethnic region.


1368 - 1644

The Ming dynasty was one of the last Chinese dynasty. I believe the Ming does not fall under 4.2, because it follows a system that has affected china for hundreds of years. i believe it should fall under 4.1 just due to trade and new technologies coming out during this time

Songhay Empire

1375 - 1591

The Songhay Empire was the last great empire of sub-Saharan Africa. it was taken over by a gunpowder bearing Moroccan army. the Songhay empire expanded, as 403 states, to become the most dominant empire in the African grasslands.

henry the navigator

1394 - 1460

Henry the navigator falls under 4.1. Henry set forth the example of long distance trade, including the new world.

Beginning of Portuguese slave trade

1430 ad

the begging of Portuguese slave trade falls under 4.1. slaves, as you well know, are a massive population, 12 million at one point. since they were mostly African, the African societies were under mre stress, due to less people to contribute to their economy. also, these large amounts of free labor helped the Americas be able to produce new goods, and food staples for the globe.

Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

1451 - 1481

i believe Mehmud can fall under all three of the key concepts. First of all, he conquered Constantinople, adding a mosque, changing the social, and religios structure of the city. also, since he captured Constantinople, he also captured a great trading post. And finally, i believe that the capturing of the city further consolidated Islamic power.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther was a protestant reformer best known for the 95 thesis, which went against the catholic church. for this reason, martin Luther falls under 4.2. He also falls under 4.2 because of his new religion, Lutheranism.

Dias' voyage into Indian Ocean

1487 - 1488

Dais's voyage into the Indian ocean introduced European influence into the region. this falls under key concept 4,1

columbus first

1492 ad - 1493

Columbus's first voyage is an example of 4.1 and 4,2. 4.1 correlates to the discovery of the new world. 4.2 correlates with the blending of European and american societies.

Treaty of Tordesillas


the Treaty of Tortillas encompasses 4.2. the treaty separated Spanish and Portuguese south american colonies. The treaty affected the social structures of both south american societies, and south american European peoples.


1501 - 1736

the Safavid empire was an Islamic empire. i believe the Safavid fall under 4.3 due to the fact that am empire is the consolidation of ones power.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Like martin Luther, John Calvin reformed the protestant religion, into what he believe it should be. John Calvin falls under 4.2, because of how is religion changed daily social life in Europe.

spanish conquest

1519 - 1521

Spanish conquered south america, however, most was through new disease, aka, smallpox. The spanish conquest brought two worlds together, so it falls under 4.1. However, when the Spaniards came over, they changed south american social aspects, with the addition of Christianity.

suleyman the magnificent

1520 - 1566

Suleyman the magnificent was an Islamic leader. i believe he should fall under 4.3, because of how he consolidated his power.


1526 ad - 1857 ad

The Mughal dynasty was a non native leader as the head of the empire. Since the Mughals were new, they brought in new tech and ideas, like 4.1 and 4.2 state.

Foundation of Society of Jesus


This society was trying to spread the word of Christianity. i believe, that the society of Jesus should fall under 4.2, because it brought a change sometimes to a region.

Council of Trent


Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

One of Akbars greatest philosophies is that he had an idea to fuse all religions, to make one religion. for this reason, he deserves to fall under 4.2

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1563 - 1620

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1632

Galileo Galilei was a thinker who changed many peoples minds on many things. he brought in new ideas, and concepts, changing social quota. this makes him in the category of 4.2

Spanish Armada



1600 - 1867

30 years war

1618 - 1648

The seven year affected many people, both on and off the battlefield. men fought, leaving women to do day to day male activities. any war causes some sort of social change, so it falls under 4.2

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was a influential thinker, and philosopher who impacted the revolution in america. this caused a gigantic social change, so 4.2

Qing dynasty

1644 - 1912

The quin dynasty was the last Chinese dynasty and it lasted until the early 20th century. when it ended, i believe it closed its doors for trade, essentially ending 4.1, in that area. However, with that change, the social dynamic was altered, so 4.2.

Peace of Westphalia


The peace of Westphalia ended the 30 years war. this returned the land to i believe it should fall under 4.2 again.

seven yrs war

1756 - 1763

The seven year affected many people, both on and off the battlefield. men fought, leaving women to do day to day male activities. any war causes some sort of social change, so it falls under 4.2

Establishment of 1st colony in Australia


Before Europeans settled Australia, it was inhabited by aboriginals. Like america, Europeans settled it and used the island for resources. this was a gigantic social change for the natives, so it falls under 4.2

Hatian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The Haitian revolution was a usurping by slaves. Haiti was a large island used for cash crops, and was tilled by Africans. the rising in Haiti was a social earthquake of change, so, it should fall under 4.2

End of the British slave trade


60 or so years before the american slave trade end, British did its own. this is a gigantic social change for Africans, and for British. for that reason, the end of slavery falls under 4.2