1450 - 1750


Ottoman dynasty

1299 - 1922

Most influential Islamic state. Established by Osman. eventually had moderately good guns, a large army, and a navy.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Portuguese prince. Never sailed. Founded a school that taught sailors and navigators. Funded many sailing explorations.

Songhay Empire

1400 - 1600

Islamic empire in which the emperors encouraged the building of mosques and schools to teach Islam to all citizens. Timbuktu was leading cultural center. Kingdom had control over trans-Sahara trade routes.

Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade


Sent African slaves to work on Sugar plantations on Portuguese islands.

Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

1444 - 1481

Conquered Constantinople and brought end to Byzantine empire.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

First King of Songhai empire. Conducted a repressive policy against scholars of Timbuktu.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

German monk credited with starting Protestant Reformation. Wrote his 99 Theses in 1517 and was excommunicated from the Catholic Church, but his ideas spread with help from the printing press. Considered founder of Lutheranism.

Dias’ voyage into Indian Ocean

1487 - 1488

Dias sailed along west coast of Africa and rounded the Cape of Good Hope.

Columbus’ first voyage


Sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. Had three ships, tried to sail to the west Indies, landed in the Bahamas in 1492.

Treaty of Tordesillas


Signed in Spain divided discovered lands outside of Europe between Spain and Portugal, east lands to Portugal, west lands to Spain.

Safavid dynatsty

1501 - 1736

Islamic dynasty. Considered beginning of modern Persian history.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

French theologian and pastor during Protestant revolution. Important leader in development of Christian theology. Made Calvinism, which focuses on emphasizing faith and the grace of God and the doctrine of the predestination.

Spanish conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

Led by Spanish Hernando Cortez. Conquered much of Mexico, killed the Aztecs with superior weapons and disease.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Longest reigning sultan of the Ottoman empire. Presided over peak of Ottoman power. Reconstructed Ottoman legal system.

Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1707

Islamic empire in India, ruled over a majority Hindu population, Mughals unified unified much of the subcontinent. During golden age art and architecture flourished. Reached peak under Akbar the Great

Foundation of Society of Jesus


Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic church. Members called Jesuits.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Council for roman catholic church. Reaffirmed supremacy of the Pope and called for reforms. Described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

One of the greatest rulers of the Mughal dynasty. expanded empire, was hard working, tried to enact many social reforms that would have improved empire.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1652

Italian physicist who confirmed and popularized Copernicus' theories, which ran counter to Catholic church. Played a major role in scientific revolution.

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1572 - 1620

Longest reign in Ming dynasty, took throne at age 9. Although seemed good ruler in first 20 years of rule, was bad in later years. It is believed that his reign was a significant factor contributing to Ming decline.

Spanish Armada


Fleet of 130 ships sent to escort an army into Britain. British had better cannons and faster ships and defeated the Armada. Established Britain as a world power.

Tokugawa shogunate

1603 - 1868

Rule of the last Feudal Japanese military government. Era AKA the Great Peace.

Thirty Year’s War

1618 - 1648

Conflict centered in Europe, resulted from Holy Roman Emperor trying to force subjects to return to Catholicism. Much of Europe participated. As a result, Switzerland and German states were given their independence and France added new territories.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Know as "Father of Classical Liberalism". was a philosopher and physician. considered one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, his work greatly impacted political philosophy.

Qing dynasty

1644 - 1911

Manchus invaded China and claimed the mandate of heaven. Qing were patrons for the arts, trade increased during this time.

Peace of Westphalia


Series of peace treaties that ended the thirty years war and the eighty years war.

Seven Years’ War

1756 - 1763

Consisted of conflicts fought globally. Involved most of the great power of the time.

Establishment of 1st colony in Austrailia


First settlement consisted mostly of soldiers, government officials, and prisoners. Britain claimed entire continent in 1830.

Haitain Revolution

1791 - 1804

Only large scale slave revolt to succeed in the new world. Inspired by American revolution, directly caused by French revolution.

End of the British slave trade


Great Britain resolved to make slave trade illegal. Slavery was banned in all parts of Britain in 1834.