Most influential Islamic state. Established by Osman. eventually had moderately good guns, a large army, and a navy.
Portuguese prince. Never sailed. Founded a school that taught sailors and navigators. Funded many sailing explorations.
Islamic empire in which the emperors encouraged the building of mosques and schools to teach Islam to all citizens. Timbuktu was leading cultural center. Kingdom had control over trans-Sahara trade routes.
Sent African slaves to work on Sugar plantations on Portuguese islands.
Conquered Constantinople and brought end to Byzantine empire.
First King of Songhai empire. Conducted a repressive policy against scholars of Timbuktu.
German monk credited with starting Protestant Reformation. Wrote his 99 Theses in 1517 and was excommunicated from the Catholic Church, but his ideas spread with help from the printing press. Considered founder of Lutheranism.
Dias sailed along west coast of Africa and rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. Had three ships, tried to sail to the west Indies, landed in the Bahamas in 1492.
Signed in Spain divided discovered lands outside of Europe between Spain and Portugal, east lands to Portugal, west lands to Spain.
Islamic dynasty. Considered beginning of modern Persian history.
French theologian and pastor during Protestant revolution. Important leader in development of Christian theology. Made Calvinism, which focuses on emphasizing faith and the grace of God and the doctrine of the predestination.
Led by Spanish Hernando Cortez. Conquered much of Mexico, killed the Aztecs with superior weapons and disease.
Longest reigning sultan of the Ottoman empire. Presided over peak of Ottoman power. Reconstructed Ottoman legal system.
Islamic empire in India, ruled over a majority Hindu population, Mughals unified unified much of the subcontinent. During golden age art and architecture flourished. Reached peak under Akbar the Great
Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic church. Members called Jesuits.
Council for roman catholic church. Reaffirmed supremacy of the Pope and called for reforms. Described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
One of the greatest rulers of the Mughal dynasty. expanded empire, was hard working, tried to enact many social reforms that would have improved empire.
Italian physicist who confirmed and popularized Copernicus' theories, which ran counter to Catholic church. Played a major role in scientific revolution.
Longest reign in Ming dynasty, took throne at age 9. Although seemed good ruler in first 20 years of rule, was bad in later years. It is believed that his reign was a significant factor contributing to Ming decline.
Fleet of 130 ships sent to escort an army into Britain. British had better cannons and faster ships and defeated the Armada. Established Britain as a world power.
Rule of the last Feudal Japanese military government. Era AKA the Great Peace.
Conflict centered in Europe, resulted from Holy Roman Emperor trying to force subjects to return to Catholicism. Much of Europe participated. As a result, Switzerland and German states were given their independence and France added new territories.
Know as "Father of Classical Liberalism". was a philosopher and physician. considered one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, his work greatly impacted political philosophy.
Manchus invaded China and claimed the mandate of heaven. Qing were patrons for the arts, trade increased during this time.
Series of peace treaties that ended the thirty years war and the eighty years war.
Consisted of conflicts fought globally. Involved most of the great power of the time.
First settlement consisted mostly of soldiers, government officials, and prisoners. Britain claimed entire continent in 1830.
Only large scale slave revolt to succeed in the new world. Inspired by American revolution, directly caused by French revolution.
Great Britain resolved to make slave trade illegal. Slavery was banned in all parts of Britain in 1834.