Most influential Islamic state. Established by Osman. eventually had moderately good guns, a large army, and a navy.
Prince Henry the Navigator
1394 - 1460
Portuguese prince. Never sailed. Founded a school that taught sailors and navigators. Funded many sailing explorations.
1400 - 1600
Islamic empire in which the emperors encouraged the building of mosques and schools to teach Islam to all citizens. Timbuktu was leading cultural center. Kingdom had control over trans-Sahara trade routes.
Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade
Sent African slaves to work on Sugar plantations on Portuguese islands.
Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror
1444 - 1481
Conquered Constantinople and brought end to Byzantine empire.
Reign of Sunni Ali
1464 - 1492
First King of Songhai empire. Conducted a repressive policy against scholars of Timbuktu.
1483 - 1546
German monk credited with starting Protestant Reformation. Wrote his 99 Theses in 1517 and was excommunicated from the Catholic Church, but his ideas spread with help from the printing press. Considered founder of Lutheranism.
Dias’ voyage into Indian Ocean
1487 - 1488
Dias sailed along west coast of Africa and rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Columbus’ first voyage
Sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. Had three ships, tried to sail to the west Indies, landed in the Bahamas in 1492.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Signed in Spain divided discovered lands outside of Europe between Spain and Portugal, east lands to Portugal, west lands to Spain.
1501 - 1736
Islamic dynasty. Considered beginning of modern Persian history.
1509 - 1564
French theologian and pastor during Protestant revolution. Important leader in development of Christian theology. Made Calvinism, which focuses on emphasizing faith and the grace of God and the doctrine of the predestination.
Spanish conquest of Mexico
1519 - 1521
Led by Spanish Hernando Cortez. Conquered much of Mexico, killed the Aztecs with superior weapons and disease.
Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent
1520 - 1566
Longest reigning sultan of the Ottoman empire. Presided over peak of Ottoman power. Reconstructed Ottoman legal system.
1526 - 1707
Islamic empire in India, ruled over a majority Hindu population, Mughals unified unified much of the subcontinent. During golden age art and architecture flourished. Reached peak under Akbar the Great
Foundation of Society of Jesus
Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic church. Members called Jesuits.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Council for roman catholic church. Reaffirmed supremacy of the Pope and called for reforms. Described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
Reign of Akbar
1556 - 1605
One of the greatest rulers of the Mughal dynasty. expanded empire, was hard working, tried to enact many social reforms that would have improved empire.
1564 - 1652
Italian physicist who confirmed and popularized Copernicus' theories, which ran counter to Catholic church. Played a major role in scientific revolution.
Reign of Emperor Wanli
1572 - 1620
Longest reign in Ming dynasty, took throne at age 9. Although seemed good ruler in first 20 years of rule, was bad in later years. It is believed that his reign was a significant factor contributing to Ming decline.
Fleet of 130 ships sent to escort an army into Britain. British had better cannons and faster ships and defeated the Armada. Established Britain as a world power.
1603 - 1868
Rule of the last Feudal Japanese military government. Era AKA the Great Peace.
Thirty Year’s War
1618 - 1648
Conflict centered in Europe, resulted from Holy Roman Emperor trying to force subjects to return to Catholicism. Much of Europe participated. As a result, Switzerland and German states were given their independence and France added new territories.
1632 - 1704
Know as "Father of Classical Liberalism". was a philosopher and physician. considered one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, his work greatly impacted political philosophy.
1644 - 1911
Manchus invaded China and claimed the mandate of heaven. Qing were patrons for the arts, trade increased during this time.
Peace of Westphalia
Series of peace treaties that ended the thirty years war and the eighty years war.
Seven Years’ War
1756 - 1763
Consisted of conflicts fought globally. Involved most of the great power of the time.
Establishment of 1st colony in Austrailia
First settlement consisted mostly of soldiers, government officials, and prisoners. Britain claimed entire continent in 1830.
1791 - 1804
Only large scale slave revolt to succeed in the new world. Inspired by American revolution, directly caused by French revolution.
End of the British slave trade
Great Britain resolved to make slave trade illegal. Slavery was banned in all parts of Britain in 1834.