Period 4 Timeline


Ottoman Dynasty

Approx. 1299 - Approx. 1922

The Ottoman Dynasty was a Turkish created tribe in Anatolia. They had an advanced military powers and didn't have to make people join most of the warriors were volunteers. They also conquered many new territories expanding their empire greatly. Connects to 4.1

Ming Dynasty

Approx. 1368 - Approx. 1644

The Ming dynasty began with a rebel uprising in the Yuan dynasty. The uprising was led by Zhu after Guo Ziyi died. In 1367 he took down the last of the military forces to gain control over the dynasty forming the Ming dynasty. Connects to 4.1

Songhay Empire

Approx. 1375 - Approx. 1591

The Songhay empire was the last of the empires to emerge in West Africa. It expanded from the Atlantic ocean into Nigeria. It started as just a trading center for fish. They started expanding by conquering other trade cities then greater into Nigeria. Connects to 4.1

Prince Henry the Navigator

Approx. 1394 - Approx. 1460

Henry never actually set sail on a journey for discovery.He sponsored many voyages along the coast of Africa. The expeditions he founded helped create maps of Africa that were very much needed. Connects to 4.2

Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

Approx. 1451 - Approx. 1481

Mehmed the Conquerer was a famous sultan from the Ottoman Empire. He ruled the empire for a short time 1451-1481. Her was a great statesmen and military leader. He enjoyed literature, fine arts and monumental architecture. He also spoke 7 languages fluently. Connects to 4.3

Reign of Sunni Ali

Approx. 1464 - Approx. 1492

Sunni Ali was a West African Monarch that wanted the expansion into the Western Sudanese kingdom in Songhay. When he conquered the Sundanese kingdom it established the basis of the Songhai's trading prosperity and expansion. Connects to 4.3

Martin Luther

Approx. 1483 - Approx. 1546

At age 27 Martin Luther was given the opportunity to be a delegate to a church conference in Rome. When that was over he was very discouraged on his road to enlightenment. He enrolled into the University of Wittenberg receiving his doctorate and becoming a professor in theology. Through his studies of scripts he became religiously enlightened. Connects to 4.2

Dias voyage into Indian Ocean

Approx. 1488

He was sent by a Portuguese king to search the Indian ocean when he went around the tip of Africia they named the port there Cape of Good Hope. On another expedition he was lost at sea arond the cape. Connects to 4.1

Columbus's first voyage

Approx. 1492 - Approx. 1493

He departed Spain in 1492 and proceeded to the canary Islands were he restocked and then proceeded on. He had three ships the Pinta, Nina, and Santa Maria. The first land he saw was what is now the Bahamas. Connects to 4.1

Treaty of Tordesillas

Approx. 1494

The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement of the land Columbus discovered. The treaty said the all land undiscovered land to the west of the Cape Verde islands was for Spain to discover and all land east for the Portuguese. No one could control land already in control by Christian leaders. Connects to 4.1

Safavid Dynasty

Approx. 1502 - Approx. 1736

After the collapse of the Mongol empire the Turks and Mongolian tribes adopted Persian customs and language. They found themselves in a deeper Islamic devotion. Connects to 4.3

John Calvin

Approx. 1509 - Approx. 1564

He lived in Geneva for a short time before anti-protestant authorities kicked him out. When he went back from Germany in 1541 he was a spiritual and political leader. he established a religious government and became the absolute ruler of Geneva. Connects to 4.2

Spanish Conquest of Aztecs

Approx. 1519 - Approx. 1521

It took the Spanish three months to seize the capital of the Aztec empire Tenochtitlán. The Spanish destroyed the city and captured the ruler Cuauhtemoc as well. Connects to 4.3

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificint

Approx. 1520 - Approx. 1566

Suleyman was a ruler in the Ottoman empire. He brought the empire to the height of its military and political power. They captured Hungary, and moved onto Vienna and Habsbergs in the east. They also completly dominated the sea. Connects to 4.2

Mughal Dynasty

Approx. 1526 - Approx. 1707

The Mughal empire was the Tukish and Mongol tribes that moved into Northern India. It was not very powerful until the 19th century when it had a effective rule over most of India. Connects to 4.1

Spanish Conquest of Incas

Approx. 1532 - Approx. 1572

Francisco Pizarro a Spaniard killed the last emperor of the Inca empire by strangulation. The Incas had a government, public works and agricultural systems. The Spanish made it sound as though they would help the Incas conquer more land when infact they were just going to ambush them. Connects to 4.3

Society of Jesus

Approx. 1540

The Society of Jesus is a religious order founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola. Connects to 4.2

Council of Trent

Approx. 1545 - Approx. 1563

The council of trent is a council within the Roman Catholic Church. It is important of its decisions on self reform. Revived the Roman Catholic church in many regions of Europe. Connects to 4.2

Reign of Akbar

Approx. 1556 - Approx. 1605

Akbar was a descended to Ghengis Khan but his father Humayun was driven from the throne and in exile when Akbar was born. When they came back into power Akbar was a great general and continued his military expansion through the empire. When he died his empire was all way in to Afghanistan. Connects to 4.1

Galileo Galilei

Approx. 1564 - Approx. 1642

He is considered the father of science. He made many contributions to physics, astronomy, cosmology, mathematics and philosophy. He invented the telescope. The Church saw him as an enemy and he was brought in front of the church many times. Connects to 4.2

Reign of Emperor Wanli

Approx. 1572 - Approx. 1582

When Wanli ruled there was more corruption and unrest then before. Abuses in power all through the government. Invasions from the North Manchu people who ended up conquering them all. Connects to 4.2

Spanish Armada

Approx. 1588

The Spanish armada is a fleet of 130 ships under the command of Duke of Medina Sidonia that was sending an army of Flanders to invade England. Connects to 4.1

Tokugawa Shogunate

Approx. 1603 - Approx. 1868

He ruled over Japan and brought the chaotic country and brought it back to normal. He was emperor until 1868. When foreigners started coming into Japan the culture was disrupted and economy and it was to late to re isolate themselves. Connects to 4.3

Thirty years war

Approx. 1618 - Approx. 1648

The thirty years war started when the Roman emperor wanted to curtail the religious activities of his people. Which caused a rebellion. The war involved involve the major powers of Europe, with Sweden, France, Spain and Austria but the war was mostly on German soil. The war ended with a series of treaties that made up the Peace of Westphalia. Connects to 4.2

John Locke

Approx. 1632 - Approx. 1704

He was one of the founders of the Whig party. In his political veiws he wanted constitutional monarchism and didnt want dominant Tories. When england fell under possible revolution Locke became a target for the government. He forced to leave England because of a false assassination attempt on King Charles II and his brother. Connects to 4.2

Qing Dynasty

Approx. 1644 - Approx. 1911

The Qing dynasty captured the capital of Beijing from the Manchus. They adopted to Ming dynasties form of government and keeping their officials. The death of the last emperor Qianlong is when the empire began to fall. Teh dynasty ended with rebellions, wars, natural disasters, economic problems, famines, and invasions. Connects to 4.1

Peace of Westphalia

Approx. 1648

The treaty was signed by Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand III, the other German princes, France, and Sweden. England, Poland, Muscovy, and Turkey. The treaty gave certain countries territories and favored Sweden, France and their allies. Connects to 4.3

Seven years war

Approx. 1754 - Approx. 1763

The war was between Europe. Generally, France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia were aligned on one side against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain. Which ended in Britain winning. Connects to 4.3

End of British slave trade

Approx. 1783

During the slave trade more than 3 million African people were transported across the Atlantic to work in the colonies. In 1783 the Quaker movement petitioned Parliament to end the slave trade. The British anti-slavery petitioned their thoughts on slavery through the distribution of abolitionist books, pamphlets, prints and artifacts.

Austrailian colony establishment

Approx. 1788 - Approx. 1850

54 European ships landed in Australia. 11 ships with 1350 people landed in Botany Bay but that land was not suitable so they moved north to Port Jackson. Connects to 4.3