Period 4

Key Concept 4.1 - Green Key Concept 4.2 - Orange Key Concept 4.3 - Blue


Ottoman Dynasty

1299 - 1922

Founded by Osman bey, the Ottoman dynasty spread throughout Anatolia and the Balkans. As Muslim leaders, they wished to be ghazi, who were Muslim religious warriors. Mehmed the Conquerer, an Ottoman ruler, captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. Under the rule of Süleyman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire reached its largest extent. The longest lasting of the three Islamic empires during this time, the Ottoman Empire was a crowning achievement of Islamic expansion and consolidation. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

The Ming Dynasty was the first Chinese dynasty after the expulsion of the Mongols and the Yuan dynasty. Ming emperors were focused on once again making China very Chinese, without any trace of Mongolian culture. The Ming emperor Yongle sent the eunuch Zheng He to the Indian Ocean on a mission to showcase the power of China. However, after Yongle's death these expeditions ended due to their expense, and China withdrew from the world. Merchants could still trade in China, but this marked the beginning of China having a more isolationist policy than in the past, and it also marked the rise of Europe as a trading powerhouse. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Prince Henry of Portugal quickened the pace of European exploration when he conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta and sponsored a series of voyages down the west African coast. After that, Portuguese merchants were able to establish fortified trading posts near modern Ghana and in other strategic locations. Even after Henry's death these trading posts continued to flourish, and soon after Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope. Thus, Price Henry set the wheel in motion for Europe to begin trading with the larger world. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade


The Portuguese needed labor to manage their sugar crops in the New World, but the Native Americans proved uncooperative because of disease and rebellions. Therefore, the Portuguese started importing black slaves from Africa. This was a huge turning point in history because it was the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. This slave trade began new social groups in the Americas and also heightened the use of cash crops, which contributed to world trade. It also began the stereotype of slaves being black, and for the first time children were born into slavery. (Key Concept: 4.2)

Reign of Mehmed the Conquerer

1451 - 1481

Mehmed II, or Mehmed the Conquerer, was an Ottoman empire leader who captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. This opened a new chapter in Ottoman expansion, because Istanbul had a superb location and an illustrious heritage. Mehmed worked energetically to make Istanbul the commercial center of the world. His army never faced any serious rivals. He spent the rest of his life conquering other lands, and even marched on Rome and captured the pope himself. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1493

Sunni Ali was a ruler of the Songhay empire in west Africa. He embarked on a campaign to consolidate his empire. He used the wealth of the important trading cities of Timbuktu and Jenne to dominate the central Niger valley. Sunni Ali built an elaborate government to oversee affairs of his empire, and his successors ruled over a prosperous land. Sunni Ali was a Muslim, as were all Songhay emperors, and throughout the empire's control of west Africa the land was very much engaged in trade. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Songhay Empire

1464 - 1591

The Songhay emperors presided over a prosperous land, and the capital city of Gao had about 75,000 residents who participated in the flourishing trans-Saharan trade. This trade brought salt, textiles, and metal goods south in exchange for gold and slaves. The emperors were all Muslim and built an Islamic university at Timbuktu. In 1591 a musket-bearing Moroccan army attacked the Songhay and the empire crumbled in response. More regional kingdoms appeared thereafter, which worked better for the Europeans with the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther was a Christian monk who sparked the Protestant Reformation in Europe. He was upset by the corruption of the Catholic church and sought to return it to its original values. However, Martin Luther ended up creating his own religion: Lutheranism. From Luther's movement sparked other Protestant religions, such as the Calvinists and the Anglicans. For the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire, western Europe wasn't completely Roman Catholic. The Reformation had huge social implications for groups within Europe, and during this time the printing press in Europe was used excessively to spread Protestant ideas. (Key Concept: 4.2)

Dias' Voyage into Indian Ocean


The Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean in hopes of creating a direct trade route between Europe and Asia that didn't include Muslim intermediaries. Dias never traveled further than the Indian Ocean, but this exploration opened up new trade routes to Europe, such as the silk, spices, and pepper trade. Europeans could now directly take part in the flourishing trade of Asia that was previously unreachable. This was an example of Europe becoming part of the larger world. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Columbus's First Voyage

August 3, 1492 - October 12, 1492

Sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, Christopher Columbus sailed west from Europe in the hopes of creating a direct trade route to Asian markets. After more than two months, Columbus landed on an island of the Caribbean off of the Americas, thinking he was in the Indies. Though he didn't know it, Columbus had just trigged the Columbian Exchange: a worldwide network of plants, food, disease, culture, and inventions that finally made the entire world connected. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Treaty of Tordesillas


In 1494 Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided the world along an imaginary north-south line 370 leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands. Spain could claim any land west of that line, according to the agreement, and Portugal can claim any lands east of the line. Thus the Portuguese established a presence in Brazil. Portuguese entrepreneurs established profitable sugar plantations on the coast of Brazil, which led to an increase in the Atlantic slave trade. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Safavid Dynasty

1502 - 1736

The Safavid dynasty was founded by the young Shah Ismail, who entered Tabriz at the head of an army and laid claim to the ancient Persian imperial title of shah. In the next ten years Ismail seized control of the Iranian plateau and launched expeditions into the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and central Asia. During the Safavid dynasty the Twelver Shiism school was developed, which was an important turning point in Muslim history. This dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Persia and is often considered the beginning of modern Persian history. (Key Concept: 4.3)

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

John Calvin was one of the Protestant Reformers during the transformation of Europe. He escaped Protestant-suppressing France and went to Switzerland, where he established a Protestant community with a strict code of morality and discipline. Like Martin Luther, Calvin used the printing press to spread Protestant ideas in his treatise "Institutes of the Christian Religion." Missionaries were very prominent in the Calvinist religion, and Calvinism, Anglicanism, and Lutheranism spread so much throughout Europe that it marked the end of a unified Christian continent. (Key Concept: 4.2)

Spanish Conquest of Mexico/Aztecs

February 1519

Hernando Cortes was searching for gold on the American mainland when he came across the Aztec. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan surrendered to Cortes under siege, but Cortes was only able to win because the Aztec had inferior weapons, were plagued with disease, and were betrayed by Aztec subjects who had allied with Cortes. This conquest of the Aztec had huge implications for the New World because it led to the topple of a powerful empire, the creation of new races, the establishment of Spain as an imperial authority in the New World, and the exchange of many cultural commodities. (Key concept: 4.2)

Reign of Süleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Ottoman imperialism climaxed in the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent. He vigorously promoted Ottoman expansion both in southwest Asia and in Europe. He conquered Baghdad in 1534 and added the Tigris and Euphrates valleys to the Ottoman domain. He kept the rival Hapsburg empire on the defensive throughout his reign. The Ottomans also became a major naval power under the reign of Suleyman. Suleyman was an example of imperial expansion that was very successfully done, and he was a contributing factor to the power of the Ottoman dynasty. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1707

The Mughal dynasty claimed descent from the Mongols and Tamerlane, and was founded by Babur the Tiger in northern India. At the height of this empire, Mughal rule embraced all of the Indian subcontinent except for a tiny region on the southern tip. The Mughal ruler Akbar was a wise leader who promoted the religious unity between Muslims and Hindus. He was also a large sponsor of the arts and was known to be accepting of all religions. The Mughal empire weakened over time, and India was eventually taken over by the British, but the dynasty was still an important example of global communication between different religious groups. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Spanish Conquest of the Incas

1532 - 1572

Francisco Pizarro led an expedition from Central America to Peru in the search for precious metals. He used a faction in the Inca ruling house between the two brothers Huascart and Atahualpa to conquer the empire. Like the Aztec, the Inca were suffering from an outbreak of disease, and Pizarro had superior weapons. Also like the Aztec, this led to cultural diffusion between Spain and Peru, but also the establishment of formal Spanish rule in the Americas. Royal officials replaced conquistadors, and the effects of this conquest can still be seen today in these areas. The Spanish also introduced new crops and animals to the Inca, and vice versa. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Foundation of Society of Jesus


The Society of Jesus was founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, who wanted to extend the boundaries of the reformed Roman church. Members of the society, known as Jesuits, had to complete a rigorous and advanced education. Therefore, the Jesuits were extraordinarily effective missionaries, and they mostly gained a positive reputation in the lands they visited. Jesuits attracted converts in India, China, Japan, the Philippines, and the Americas, thus making Christianity a genuinely global religion. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent began in response to the reformation movement in Europe and was carried out by the Roman Catholic Church to address matters of doctrine and reform. This council defined the elements of Roman Catholic theology in detail, and the council took steps to reform the church, and new schools and seminaries were established in order to prepare priests properly for their role. However, this council did not stop the Reformation, which continued to spread throughout Europe. (Key Concept: 4.2)

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

Akbar was the real architect of the Mughal empire in India. He was a brilliant and charismatic ruler who ruthlessly consolidated his rule into a tightly centralized government while still being a thoughtful and reflective man. Though technically a Muslim, Akbar wanted to cease tensions between the Hindus and Muslims in India, so he practiced some Hindu beliefs himself and make it okay for his subjects to be Hindu. He even tried to create a new faith, called "the divine faith," which was a mix of Hindu and Islamic beliefs, but it proved unsuccessful. Under Akbar the Mughal empire flourished, but after his death tensions between the Muslims and Hindus grew until the empire was greatly weakened, and England began to control the subcontinent. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Galileo was part of the Scientific Revolution in Europe during this time. He disproved the theory of the Ptolemaic theory by showing that the planets were not situated under a perfect, unblemished heaven, but rather the universe was larger than ever before suspected. Also, using a telescope, Galileo saw that the sun had spots and the moon had mountains. Therefore, he proved the planets weren't perfectly spherical. He also made discoveries about gravity that proved the Earth itself was rotating, and planets weren't just rotating around a stationary object. Galileo's discoveries served as a perfect example of how Europe was becoming more advanced during this time period, both in trade and in mathematics. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1572 - 1620

Wanli was a Ming emperor who provides an example for why the Ming dynasty collapsed. He ignored government affairs for decades on end while refusing to meet with government officials. Instead, he indulged in wine and left the governing to his favorite eunuchs, who slowly grew more powerful and were able to consolidate their hold on China. Because of this, the dynasty grew corrupt and inefficient, and this greatly weakened the Ming state. However, Wanli does also serve as an example of global exchange, because he and his court were greatly enchanted by chiming mechanical clocks brought over by the Portuguese, and the devices spread throughout China. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Spanish Armada


In 1588 King Philip II of Spain attempted to force England to return to the Roman Catholic church by sending the Spanish Armada. The Spanish Armada consisted of 130 ships and 30,000 men. Philip wanted to dethrone the Protestant Queen Elizabeth, but English forces defeated the Spanish Armada at sea. This was a huge turning point for England, because before this battle the Spanish were considered to be the biggest force at sea, but now it was the English. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603 - 1868

Tokugawa Ieyasu centralized Japan into the Tokugawa shogunate after a long period of civil warring. He installed a strict militaristic government with a stronger focus on political and social stability than cultural influences. Throughout this period the Japanese government was opposed to foreign trade, but merchants still traded in Japan and Japan was able to become more advanced and more prominent in a global context through European innovations. (Key Concept: 4.1)

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War was the culmination of the religious wars between European countries. It was a massive continental conflict that had huge implications for the whole of Europe. It began with the Holy Roman emperor attempting to force his Bohemian subjects to return to the Roman Catholic church, and when the war ended, Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish, Polish, Bohemian, and Russian forces had been involved. Before the twentieth century, this was the most destructive European conflict. Economies and societies throughout Europe were destroyed, and one-third of the German population was killed. This disaster led to questions about how well Europe could function with so many competing regions. (Key Concept: 4.3)

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was an English philosopher who contributed to the Enlightenment period in Europe. He worked to discover the natural laws of politics. He attacked divine-right theories as a basis for absolute monarchies, and promoted constitutional government, because he believed the government resided in the people. Locke's theories provided justifications for movements such as the Glorious Revolution and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in England. Thus, Locke's ideas contributed to new state forms in Europe. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911

After the Ming dynasty fell, the nomadic Manchus poured into China from the north and established the Qing dynasty. Though the Manchus were foreigners, they retained classic Chinese values, much as the Ming had. For example, the emperor Kangxi was a Confucian scholar and an enlightened ruler. His grandson Qianlong also continued to expand Chinese influence. However, the Manchus were also careful to preserve their own ethnic and cultural identity, and Chinese men had to style their hair in the Manchu way as a sign of submission. Like the Ming dynasty, the Qing believed China to be the center of the world, and the emperors were somewhat suspicious of merchants. China was still very powerful because it controlled the silver trade, but the refusal of China to acknowledge the growing power and innovations of Europe was slowly proving to be a mistake, because Europe began to take center stage. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Peace of Westphalia

May 1648 - October 1648

The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between European rulers after decades of fighting. The treaty settled land discrepancies throughout Europe, but did not lead to peace throughout the land. Instead, it led to the competitive nature between kingdoms such as England, Portugal, and the Netherlands. This competitiveness sparked the European exploration of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and it also was the trigger for capitalism and new technologies in Europe. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years' War was a series of conflicts between European nations (specifically England and France) over who held the most land and power in the New World and Europe. The war was ended with the Treaty of Paris, and from this treaty England came out ahead, and won much previously French and Spanish territory in the New World. This set the stage for England being a powerhouse not just in the New World, but also in Europe. Throughout the next few centuries England would gain more power in the west and east alike. (Key Concept: 4.3)

Establishment of 1st Colony in Australia


After Captain James Cook reported that Botany Bay (near modern Sydney) in Australia was suitable for settlement, a British fleet arrived at Sydney carrying about one thousand passengers. For about half a century Europeans in Australia were very few, and there were only fleeting encounters with the aboriginal tribes. However, the colony remained, and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries a continuing steam of European migrants and settlers linked Australia more directly with the larger world. (Key Concept: 4.1)

End of the British slave trade


England abolished the slave trade in 1807. Before this, Africans were captured form port cities in Africa and brought through the Atlantic Ocean to England. However, the cost of transporting the slaves was very expensive, and eventually it became clear that it was more profitable to hire laborers to work for a wage rather than paying to take care of the slaves. Therefore, slavery was ended because of economic reasons rather than moral reasons. However, slavery was abolished in other countries within Europe until it disappeared entirely from the continent. Even though slavery itself was illegal, there were still Africans living in Europe who created their own culture and shared some of their traditions. (Key Concept: 4.2)