Period 3

Key Concept 3.1: Blue Key Concept 3.2: Purple Key Concept 3.3: Green


Silla Dynasty

57 ad - 935 ad

The Silla dynasty was a dynasty in Korea that resisted Tang attempts to conquer. The two countries eventually entered into a truce, and Korea became a vassal state to China. However, the Silla dynasty and the rest of Korea were able to stay mostly independent. The tributary relationship with China proved to be extremely beneficial because it brought Chinese ideas to Korea, and Korean merchants were able to travel to China and bring back information. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Kingdom of Ghana

Approx. 300 - Approx. 1200

The Kingdom of Ghana was a large kingdom in west Africa. This kingdom traded mainly with gold and salt. Ghana adapted Islam from the Muslim merchants who traded with the African merchants. Ghana was crucial as an example of how eastern Africa was able to centralize more than east Africa could, simply due to geography. (Key Concept: 3.2)


570 - 632

Muhammad was the founder of Islam and the "seal of the prophets." Born a merchant, he experienced a vision in his later life and spent most of the rest of his life spreading Islam and fleeing its persecutors. Muhammad always encouraged trade across the Middle East and was respectful to the rights of women. As the creator of Islam, Muhammad was extremely crucial to this time period. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Sui Dynasty

581 - 618

The Sui dynasty was the first centralized rule in China after the classical period. Though the dynasty didn't last long, Sui Yangdi built the Grand Canal, which connected the north and the south of China and stimulated trade throughout the empire. After rebellions ended the Sui dynasty, the grand canal was still successfully used until the invention of the railroad. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

The Tang dynasty created the golden age of China and an extremely prosperous society. During this time there were excellent roads for communication, an equal field system, a bureaucracy based on merit, and positive foreign relations. Though internal problems led to the end of the Tang dynasty, the country prospered greatly both during and after this dynasty.

Umayyad Dynasty

661 - 750

The Umayyad dynasty was the first Islamic dynasty after the rule of the caliphates. The Umayyads were shiites, meaning they believed the ruler of Islam should be a direct descendant of Muhammad. The Umayyads weren't a successful dynasty because they were often disliked for their favor shown to Arab aristocrats. Internal struggles in the empire led to the end of Umayyad rule and the establishment of the Abbasids. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Nara Period

710 - 794

The Nara period in Japan was inspired by the Tang dynasty in China. It began when a clan in Japan claimed imperial authority and attempted to centralize Japan. Nara rulers supported Confucianism and Buddhism, and they implemented an equal-field system. However, this was also a time of Japanese independence, and many Japanese people still observed the rites of Shinto. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Abbasid Dynasty

750 AD - 1258 AD

The Abbasid Dynasty was the second Islamic dynasty after the Umayyads. The Abbasid caliphs were Sunnis, meaning they believed the leader of Islam didn't have to be a direct descendant of Muhammad. The Abbasid Dynasty was successful and promoted trade across the Middle East and other parts of Eurasia. It was during this time that Muslims gathered a lot of information concerning philosophy, medicine, and science. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Heian Period

794 - 1185

The Heian Period was a period in Japan when Japan was most influenced by China. The upper class was heavily influenced by Buddhism and also Taoism. During this time the Japanese imperial court also had successful poetry and literature, such as the "Tale of Genji." (Key Concept: 3.2)

Reign of Charlemagne

800 - 814

Charlemagne was the king of the newly united Franks in Europe. He was a Christian who attempted to re-centralize Europe into the former Roman empire. Though he was unsuccessful, Charlemagne was an important example of western Europe's wish to remain Roman. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

The Song dynasty came after the Tang dynasty in China, and it was a centralized state. The Song were never quite as successful as the Tang, and they never built a powerful state because Song leaders were more interested in the arts than military affairs. It was also during this period that women in China became even more oppressed than before, and this was partly due to the new Song tradition of foot binding. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Schism Between Eastern and Western Christian Church


After differences with iconoclasm and lines of succession, the western and eastern Christian church in Europe split into the Roman Catholic church (west) and the Eastern Orthodox church (east). The pope ruled in the west, and the emperor of the Byzantine empire in the east. This schism still exists today, and was a huge development in the history of Christianity. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Norman Invasion of England


William the Conquerer was a Norman who invaded England and attempted to establish a centralized state there. He made a speedy military victory and expelled the Anglo-Saxons who had ruled there previously. Though the English monarchy faced challenges, it was able to maintain a reasonably good government. (Key Concept: 3.2)

First Crusade

1096 - 1099

The first crusade was launched by Normans who had established a state in southern Italy. They mounted a crusade to recapture Jerusalem and other holy Christian lands that were under the dominion of the Muslims. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Kingdom of Angkor

Approx. 1200 - 1431

This kingdom testifies to the influence of Indian traditions in southeast Asia. The capital of the kingdom was built to reflect the Hindu world order. Buddhist structures were later added to the complex. Even after Angkor was abandoned, it still left an example of the influence of Indian political, cultural, and religious traditions in southeast Asia. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

Though the goal of this crusade was originally to capture Jerusalem, the Venetian merchants targeted Constantinople. The Venetians defeated the Byzantines and captured Constantinople. Though the Byzantines were eventually able to recapture Constantinople, the empire never really recovered from their defeat. Additionally, this crusade was embarrassing to the Roman Catholic church, because they were supposed to capture Jerusalem. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Reign of Genghis Khan

1206 - 1227

Genghis Khan was a nomadic Mongol warlord who united the Mongols and created a huge empire across Eurasia. He conquered ruthlessly but effectively, and his empire was one of the largest in the world. Genghis Khan wasn't interested in governing, so after his death his empire shrunk before his grandson took control. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 - 1526

In an attempt to establish Islam in India, Turkish people created the Sultanate of Delhi in northern India. Because of this, northern India converted mostly to Islam, but the south stayed stubbornly Hindu. The Sultanate of Delhi, though not successful in converting all of India to Islam, was crucial to the establishment of Islam in India, and also to the relationship between Muslims and Hindus. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe

1220 - 1450

Great Zimbabwe was one of the city states near the east coast of Africa that prospered off of Indian ocean trade. Kings of Great Zimbabwe organized the flow of gold, iron, and slaves. This trade led Great Zimbabwe to gain great wealth. The Indian Ocean trade generated this power that was given to Great Zimbabwe. (Key Concept: 3.3)

Mali Empire

Approx. 1230 - Approx. 1600

The Mali empire benefitted tremendously from trans-Saharan trade. For about two hundred years, Mali completely controlled and taxed all trade passing through west Africa. The capital city, filled with gold, attracted merchants, and Islam was established in the empire. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Mongol Conquest of all of China

1235 - 1279

Genghis Khan, the uniter of the Mongols, was never able to conquer all of China, but his grandson, Kublai Khan, was able to. Kublai Khan conquered the Song dynasty in southern China, and established the Yuan dynasty. This marked a time of both Chinese and Mongolian influences that changed the government of China. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Reign of Kublai Khan

1260 - 1294

Kublai Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan. Though Genghis Khan was never able to conquer the Song dynasty in southern China, Kublai Khan was successful in conquering the Chinese, and he established the Yuan dynasty in China. Kublai Khan encouraged trade and communication, which was beneficial to both the Mongol empire and the whole of Eurasia. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Yuan Dynasty

1271 - 1368

The Yuan dynasty was established by the Mongol Kublai Khan after he conquered the Song dynasty in southern China. Kublai Khan didn't completely expel Chinese influences. In fact, he listened to Chinese officials in his government and established the Mandate of Heaven. Some Mongol influences also remained, such as the higher treatment of women than in Chinese society. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Marco Polo's Trip to China

1275 - 1292

Marco Polo was a famous Venetian traveler who spent almost 20 years at the court of Kublai Khan. Much of what is known today about Kublai Khan was written down by Marco Polo. Marco Polo praised Kublai Khan for his generosity to the poor and his patronage of trade and communication. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Reign of Mansa Musa

1312 - 1337

Mansa Musa was the king of the wealthy Mali empire in west Africa. He converted to Islam while he was king, and traveled to Mecca to make his pilgrimage. During his journey he would throw out gold to the people living in the cities he traveled through. This led merchants and artisans to visit Mali, and the Mali economy boomed. Mansa Musa was a successful leader for this reason. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Ibn Battuta's Journey

1325 - 1354

Ibn Battuta was one of the great world travelers of all time. He studies Islamic law and made a pilgrimage to Mecca. He traveled by caravan across north Africa and through Egypt, Palestine, and Syria in order to reach Mecca. After his pilgrimage he visited Mesopotamia and Persia, and traveled down the east African coast to Kilwa. Later, he set off for India and China. Lastly, he visited Granada in Spain, then Mali, and returned to his home of Morocco. His travels show how possible it was during this time to cross wide distances and communicate with other cultures. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Year's War was a time when the kings of France and England were constantly sparring over lands claimed by both. This led to an extended period of time when both kings mounted campaigns in order to conquer lands in France. This was an example of internal problems complicating European political affairs. (Key concept: 3.2)

First Bubonic Plague Pandemic

1340 - 1400

The Mongols encouraged trade and communication across their conquered lands, but unfortunately they were also the cause of the Bubonic Plague, or "Black Death." The Bubonic Plague was a horrible disease that hit Europe and wiped out a third of the human population. Though trade and communication is usually a good thing, here is an example where it went wrong. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

The Ming dynasty was established after the Yuan dynasty. The dynasty was focused on eliminating all signs of Mongol rule. Ming rulers reestablished Confucian educational and civil service systems. They also focused heavily on centralization. (Key Concept: 3.2)


1370 - 1405

"Tamerlane the Whirlwind" was a self made Turkish conquerer who invaded lands after the collapse of the Mongols left a huge power vacuum in Asia. He had a limp, which earned him the nickname "Timur the Lame," which eventually became Tamerlane. Tamerlane conquered Persia, Afghanistan, Russia, India, and was about to head towards China when he fell ill and died. Tamerlane didn't care much about governing, and his successors weren't able to stop fighting each other enough to retain Tamerlane's empire. Therefore, it collapsed and the Ottoman Turks took control in that area. (Key Concept: 3.2)

Zheng He's Expeditions

1371 - 1433

Zheng He was an eunuch admiral who embarked on a voyage sponsored by the Ming dynasty to establish a Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean basin. He dispensed Chinese gifts such as silk and porcelain, and this successfully spread Chinese culture throughout the rest of Asia. (Key Concept: 3.1)

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

The Inca Empire was a huge empire stretching from modern Quito to Santiago, a distance of 2,500 miles. It easily ranks as one of the largest states every built in South America. The Inca were a successful society who supported trade, communication, and political organization. (Key Concept: 3.2)