AP Art History Barron's Timeline

Prehistoric Art

Paleolithic Art, Europe

30,000 BCE - 4000 BCE

-Enlarged sexual organs and small feet and arms
-Carvings on cave wall use natural modulations of cave

-Most in caves
-Many animals
-Animals more details than ppl

Paleolithic Art, Near East

30,000 BCE - 8000 BCE

Neolithic Art, Near East

8000 BCE - 3000 BCE

Neolithic Art, Europe

4000 BCE - 2000 BCE

Ancient Near Eastern Art

Sumerian Art

3500 BCE - 2340 BCE

-Realistic-looking figures acting out identifiable narratives
-Negative space
-Eyes wide open
-Nudity= debasement
-Virtually emotionless humans
-Hierarchy of scale

Akkadian Art

2340 BCE - 2180 BCE

-Deification of king

Babylonian Art

1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

-Laws from god Shamash
-Babylon decorated very well

Hittite Art

1600 BCE - 1200 BCE

-Stone rather than mud-brick

Assyrian Art

1000 BCE - 612 BCE

-Greatness of king
-Stoic figures
-Animals have a lot of emotions
-Relief sculpture

Persian Art

559 BCE - 331 BCE

-Largest empire world world had seen up to this time
-Monumental architecture
-Columns topped bull-shaped capitals

Egyptian Art

Old Kingdom (Egyptian)

2575 BCE - 2134 BCE

-Unyielding and formidable expression
-Unification under King Narmer, pyramids

Middle Kingdom (Egyptian)

2040 BCE - 1640 BCE

-More relaxed and elongated figures
-Unified under Mentihotep II
-Smaller and less expensive rock-cut tombs

New Kingdom (Egyptian)

1550 BCE - 1070 BCE

-Rounded and elongated figures betraying an intimacy

Amarna Period

1353 BCE - 1335 BCE

-Akhenaton substituted one god, Aton
-Aton represented by sun disk emitting rays

Aegean Art

Cycladic (Aegean)

3000 BCE - 1600 BCE

-Stylized statuettes of nude standing females and nude males playing musical instruments
-Much found in grave sites


Minoan (Aegean)

1900 BCE - 1375 BCE

-Mixed-use palaces w/ complex ground plans
-Incredibly fluid
-Curved lines
-Egyptian format w tiny waists
-A few have figures in true profile, though
-Pure landscapes present
-Megaron= main audience chamber of a Minoan palace

Mycenaean (Aegean)

1600 BCE - 1100 BCE

-Massive citadels marked by cyclopean masonry and corbelled vaults
-Strong influence from Minoan forms, but more sturdy figures

Greek Art

Geometric (Greek Pottery)

900 BCE - 700 BCE

-Horizontal lines with minimal figures

Orientalizing (Greek Pottery)

700 BCE - 600 BCE

-Influence from Egyptian and Mesopotamian art
-Eastern floral motifs and exotic animals next to geometric bands

Archaic (Greek Sculpture)

600 BCE - 480 BCE

-Grave monuments, such as kouros and kore figures, both of which stand frontally, with knotted hair and curlicue ears. Cut free from stone as much as possible. One foot in front of the other. Archaic smiles.
-Often made of marble
-Often painted and w metal accessories
-Bronze sculpture hollow

Archaic (Greek Pottery)

600 BCE - 480 BCE

-Black figure
-Figures drawn in black on the red natural surface of clay
-At the end, red figure vases introduced by Andokides (reversal of black figure style pots)

Classical (Greek Sculpture)

480 BCE - 400 BCE

-Contrapposto, fluid body movement
-Highly idealized forms

Late Classical Art (Greek Sculpture)

400 BCE - 323 BCE

-Late Classical period of fourth century: people sculpted in a more humanized way (due to crushing of Athens in fifth century BCE during Peloponnesian War)
-Lanky look to bodies
-S-curve to the frame

Hellenistic (Greek Sculpture)

323 BCE - 30 BCE

-Willingness to show more movement
-Great variety of expressions
-New themes, such as old age
-Beauties still present, but accent on a variety of expressions
-Greater flexibility in carvings
-Viewer meant to walk around a Hellenistic sculpture

Etruscan Art

Etruscan Art

1000 BCE - 270 BCE

-Necropoli filled with tombs that resemble large rooms in a home
-Sculptures and temples heavily influenced by Archaic Greek works
-Sculptors excel in bronze and terra-cotta production
-Painting: mostly funerary, brightly painted frescoes
-Sculpture: Modeled rather than carved. Many show awareness of Greek Archaic art, although they're not totally the same.


700 BCE - 600 BCE

Roman Art

Founding of Rome

753 BCE

By Romulus and Remus
-Key ideas:
-Reflects ambitions of a powerful empire
-Architecture revolutionary in its understanding of the powers of the arch, the vault and concrete
-Interest in the basic elements of perspective and foreshortening
-Greatly indebted to Greek models

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

Characteristics of Republic Sculpture:
-Busts of noblemen called veristic sculptures quite realistic, with age enhance
-Full-length statues concentrate on the heads, some of which are removed form one wok and placed on another
-Bodies sometimes classically idealized
-Great respect for ancestors

Early and High Roman Empire

27 BCE - 192 CE

-Busts of senators gruff, as in Republic
-Emperors portrayed as well, and are more classical
-Emperors have contrapposto, ideal proportions, and heroic poses of Greek Statuary
-Forms become less individualized

Late Roman Empire

192 CE - 410 CE

Characteristics of Late Imperial Sculpture:
-Sylistic shift
-Classical tradition slowly abandoned
-Compositions marked by figures that lack individuality and are crowded tightly together
-Everything is pushed forward
-Depth and recession rejected
-Bodies almost lifeless behind drapery
-Contropposto ignored
-Emperors more and more demonstrated as military figures rather than civilian rulers

Late Antique Art

-Christianity begins as a prohibited and therefore underground religion. Its earliest works appear in the catacombs and sarcophogi.
-Christian images inspired by the classical past but are also influenced by Constantinian artwork from the Late Roman Empire
-Christian buildings use both axially planned Roman basilicas and the centrally planned Roman temple forums
-Other cultures flourish during the Late Antique world, such as the Early Jews, who generally prohibit a narrative artistic tradition.

Early Christian Art

200 CE - Approx. 500 CE

-Love/hate relationship with Romans
-Adaptation of Roman elements
-Christianity expresses dominance over older worship
-2 types: centrally and axially planned
-Exteriors avoided decoration

Painting and Sculpture:
-Narrative religion
-Episodes from the Bible
-Four authors: Matthew (angel/man), Mark (lion), Luke(ox) and John(eagle)

Early Christian Painting:
-Artistic programs
-Jesus always central
-When Christianity was recognized as official religion in 380 CE, Christ no longer depicted as humble good shepherd, and instead takes on imperial imagery
-Mosaics made of gold or other precious materials

Early Christian Sculpture
-Large-scale sculpture avoided
-Ivories and marbles carved on personal scale

Ancient Jewish Art

245 CE - Approx. 256 CE

-Jewish artists in town of Dura Europos
-Paintings direct and frontally faced
-Evidence that Jewish works had tradition of representational artwork

Byzantine Art

-Byzantine Empire born out of remains of Roman Empire, and continued many elements of the Roman classical tradition, but in a Christian framework
-Painting specialized in mosaics, icons and manuscript illumination
-Byzantine art has two traditions: one reflecting the classical past and a second interested in a hieratic medieval style-- often in the same work
-Byzantine architects invented the pendentive and squinch for buildings known for their mysterious and shadowy interiors

Early Byzantine

500 - 726

Iconoclastic Controversy

726 - 843

Middle or High Byzantine

843 - 1204

Late Byzantine

1204 - Approx. 1453

Islamic Art

-Chief building for Muslim worship is the mosque, which directs the worshipper's attention to Mecca through a niche called a mihrab
-Calligraphy is the most prized art form, appearing on most Islamic works of art
-Both figural and nonfigural works incorporate calligraphy with arabesques and tessellations
-Persian manuscripts are fine examples of Islamic figural art

Islamic Art

650 CE - 2015

-Ban on depicting animals and human beings
-Geometric, floral and calligraphic shapes

Persian Manuscripts

1258 - Approx. 1258

-Portrayal of figures in relatively shadowless worlds
-Sumptuously dressesd
-Intricate detail
-Geometric patterns
-Viewer's point of view sometimes shifts
-Calligraphy at top

Early Midieval Art

-The Migration period of the Early Middle Ages featured portable works that were done in the animal style
-Characteristics of Early Medieval art include horror vacui and interlacing patterns
-Art at the court of Charlemagne begins the first of many western European revivals of ancient Rome
-Ottonian art revives large scale sculpture and carchitecture

Hiberno-Saxon Art

501 - 800

-Location: British Isles

Viking Art

701 - 1100

-Location: Scandanavia

Carolignian Art

701 - 900

-Location: France, Germany

Ottonian Art

901 - Approx. 1050

-Location: Germany

Romanesque Art

Romanesque Art

1050 - 1150

-Revitalization of large-scale architecture and sculpture
-Pilgrimages to sacred European shrines increase the flow of people and ideas around the continent
-Romanesque architects develop the apses of churches to accomodate large crowds of pilgrims
-Church portal sculptures stress themes of the Last Judgment and the need for salvation
-Manuscript painting and weaving flourish as art forms

Gothic Art

Gothic art arises at the end of the Romanesque period. One of the founders of Gothic architecture, Abbot Suger of Paris, decided to employ several familiar elements of Romanesque art (ribbed vaults, compound piers) in a new way that transferred the massive supporting frame of Romanesque churches outside the building, allowing the placement in the walls of much larger windows than had been possible earlier. The result was a much taller, spacious, and brighter architecture that soon spread over France

Early Gothic

1140 - 1194

France, round columns in the interior, rib vaults, NOTRE DAME, SAINT-DENIS

Gothic Art

1140 - 1400

-Built on developments made in the Romanesque: the rib vault, the pointed arch, and the bay system of construction
-Gothic architecture reached new vertical heights through the use of flying buttresses that carry the weight of the roof to the walls outside the building and deflect wind pressure
-Gothic sculpture, particularly on portals is more three-dimensional than its Romanesque counterparts, emerging from the wall, and emphasizing the verticality of the structure
-Gothic manuscript painting is influenced by the luminosity and richness of stained glass windows

High Gothic/Rayonnant

1194 - 1300

France, rib vaults from ceiling to floor, larger window spaces, choirs, compound piers, more sculpture, AMIENS, CHARTRES

Late Gothic/Flamboyant

1300 - Approx. 1600

After 1300 France, highly decorative, mass of pinnacles, OGEE, SAINT-MACLOU

Perpendicular Gothic

1350 - Approx. 1600

After 1350 England, unique development, characterized by enormous window spaces interlaced with elaborative decorative patterns, FAN VAULT

Gothic Art in Italy

-Bridge between Medieval and Renaissance art
-The artist becomes an important historical personality whose life story can be traced and recorded
-Aspects of ancient sculpture are revitalized under the artistic leadership of the Pisani family
-The Sienese and Florentine school of painting dominate trecento art

Gothic Art in Italy

1250 - 1400

Early Renaissance in Northern Europe: Fifteenth Century

-An active and prosperous capitalist society inspired a cultural ferment in fifteenth-century Flanders and Holland
-Important secular works of fifteenth-century architecture are influenced by Gothic church architecture
-The International Gothic style dominates Northern European painting in the early fifteenth century
-Flemish painting is characterized by symbolically rich layers of meaning applied to crowded compositions with high horizon lines
-Secular art becomes increasingly important
-The introduction of printmaking, the first mass-produced art form, radically transforms art history

Early Renaissance in Northern Europe: Fifteenth Century

1400 - 1500

-An active and prosperous capitalist society inspired a cultural ferment in fifteenth-century Flanders and Holland
-Important secular works of fifteenth-century architecture are influenced by Gothic church architecture
-The International Gothic style dominates Northern European painting in the early fifteenth century
-Flemish painting is characterized by symbolically rich layers of meaning applied to crowded compositions with high horizon lines
-Secular art becomes increasingly important
-The introduction of printmaking, the first mass-produced art form, radically transforms art history

Early Renaissance in Italy: Fifteenth Century

Early Renaissance in Italy

1400 - 1500

-Revitalization of classical ideals in literature, history and philosophy had its impact on the fine arts
-Renaissance courts influenced by the spirit of humanism, which stressed the secular alongside the religious
-Artists created realistic three- dimensional paintings based on the newly rationalized theories on linear perspective
-Italian Renaissance sculpture is marked by a greater understanding of human anatomy; there is a revival of large-scale nude works
-Architecture emphasizes open light spaces in a balanced and symmetrical environment

High Renaissance

High Renaissance

1495 - 1520

-Revitalization of city of Rome under patronage of Pope Julius II led to one of the most creative outbursts in the history of art
-High Renaissance artists seek to emulate Roman grandeur by undertaking awe-inspiring artistic projects
-High Renaissance compositions are marked by balance, symmetry and ideal proportions. Triangular compositions are also favored.
-Venetian painters stress sensuous forms with sophisticated color harmonies.
-Portraits reveal the likenesses of the sitters as well as their character personality

Mannerism and Other Trends of Late Sixteenth-Century Italy

Mannerism and Other Trends of Late Sixteenth-Century Italy

1520 - 1600

-Mannerism is very intellectual, asking the viewer to respond in a sophisticated way to the spatial challenges presented in a painting or a sculpture
-Mannerist painting and sculpture are characterized by complicated composition, distorted figure styles, and complex allegorical interpretations
-Mannerist architecture often employs classical elements in a new and unusual way that defies traditional formulas

Later Renaissance in Northern Europe and Spain: Sixteenth Century

Later Renaissance in Northern Europe and Spain: Sixteenth Century

1500 - 1600

-The Reformation sparked a series of iconoclasm in Northern Europe, destroying much great art work and prohibiting new work from being created; nonetheless, in most places in Northern Europe, the sixteenth century was a creative and dynamic period.
-Artists, particularly sculptors, sought new ways to represent figures without appearing to create pagan idols
-Northern European art is powerfully influenced by the achievements of the Italian Renaissance although most Northern painters retained their own artistic traditions
-Abrecht Dürer represents the combination of Northern Renaissance realism and interest in detail with the Italian concern for size and monumentality

Baroque Art

Baroque Art

1600 - 1700

-The Counter-Reformation, which symbolized the Catholic resurgence, finds an artistic parallel in --- of Italy, Flanders, Spain, and France.
-Also flourishes in Protestant Holland, which becomes a counter voice to Catholic art.
-Painting is divided into two schools of thought: the classicists, inspired by the works of central Italian artists such as Raphael; and the naturalists, inspired by Venetian painters such as Titian.
-Artists experiment with different art forms, such as genre paintings, landscapes, and still lifes, and bring them artistically to the same level as transitional subjects.
-Architecture is associated with the majestic royal courts of Europe.

The Rococo in Europe and Eighteenth-Century English Painting

The Rococo in Europe and Eighteenth-Century English Painting

1700 - 1750

-A shift of power from the royal court to the aristocrats is paralleled in the shift in taste from the Baroque to the ---.
-The French Royal Academy dictated artistic taste in 18th century Paris.
-Architecture seeks to unite the arts in a coherent artistic experience.
-A quintessential --- painting is the "fete galante", which portrays the aristocracy in their leisurely pursuits.
-Developed a strong school of satirical painting.



1750 - 1815

-The Enlightenment brought about a rejection of royal and aristocratic authority. The Rococo style was replaced by ---, which was perceived as more democratic.
-Inspired by the unearthing of the ruins at Pompeii and the books of art theorist Johann Winckelmann.
-Even if works of art depict current events or contemporary portraits, there are frequent classical allusions.
-The late 18th century was the age of the Industrial Revolution: new technologies such as cast iron were introduced into architecture, and for the first time it became more economical to carve from bronze than marble.



1789 - 1848

-Heavily influenced by a spirit of individuality and a freedom of expression unique up until this time.
-Enjoys the sublime in nature and the revolutionary in politics.
-Painters explore the in conscience world of dreams and fantasies.
-A new art form called photography is invented; it's immediacy makes it an overnight sensation.
-Architecture revives historical forms, especially from the Middle Ages.

Late Nineteenth-Century Art

Pre-Raphaelite Brothers

1848 - Approx. 1860

-Brotherhood was a group of English artists who thought that Raphael caused the death of art history by introducing a dramatic form of chiaroscuro into his paintings
-Thought that this technique diminished art's impact
-They instead found inspiration in Northern European and Italian works of the fifteenth century
-Reliance on literary texts for inspiration
-Strong attachment to symbolism

Late Nineteenth-Century Art

1848 - 1900

-The Realist art movement was philosophically based on the theory of positivism
-Japanese art had a profound impact on late nineteenth-century painting
-Plein-air painting dominates much of Impressionist art
-Post-Impressionists reacted against what they saw as the ephermal quality of Impressionist painting
-Symbolist painters seek to portray mystical personal visions
-In the late nineteenth century the skyscraper was born as a result of new technological advances, the invention of the elevator, and the rise of land values
-Art Nouveau seeks to create a unified artistic experience combining painting, sculpture, and architecture; it relies on organic forms and motifs


1848 - Approx. 1860

COURBET, "Show me an angel, and I'll paint one", painting only what one could experience with the five senses, painting the lower classes in their environment, daily lives touched with honesty and sincerity, inspired by positivism movement


1872 - Approx. 1885

-Modernist movement symbolized by avant-grande artists who spearheaded it
-Try to capture dappling effects of light across a given surface
-Use a large color range
-Concentrate on landscape and still-life paintings
-Great influence of Japanese art
-Hallmark of bourgeois taste


Approx. 1885 - Approx. 1895

stressed light, shading, and color, as well as an analysis of the STRUCTURE of a subject, PAUL CEZANNE, "make Impressionism something solid and durable", abstraction, seemingly retain solid forms


1890 - 1899

reaction to Realism, felt the unseen forces of life, the things deeply felt rather than merely seen, were the guiding influences in painting, embraced mystical philosophy in which dreams and inner experiences became the source of inspiration, vary greatly in styles

Art Nouveau

1895 - 1914

-Lasted from about 1890-1914
-Seeks to eliminate separation among various artistic media and combine them into one unified experience
-Vegetal and floral patterns
-Straight lines avoided
-Accent on the curvilinear
-Elaborately conceived wrought ironwork

Early Twentieth-Century Art

Prairie Style

1900 - 1917

-1900-1917 Frank Lloyd Wright
-concerns a group of Chicago architects from 1900 to 1917, Frank Lloyd Wright, rejected the idea that buildings should be done in historic style, buildings should be in harmony with their site, complex irregular plans and forms that seemed to reflect contemporary painting, rectangles, squares, circles, botanical spaces, organic qualities of materials, believed to be most beautiful

The Bridge


-Branch of expressionism



-1905 Matisse
-1905, SALON D'AUTOMNE in Paris, thought paintings looked like they were created by "Wild Beasts', inspired by Gauguin and van Gogh, work exhibited in Paris, stressed painterly surface with broad flat areas, figure modeling, color harmonies


1905 - 1935

-1905-1930s Modersohn-Becker
-"The Bridge", EXPRESSIONISM, 1905, bridge from traditional to modern painting, emphasized Fauve ideas expressed in violent juxtapositions of color, so purposely roused the ire of critics and the public


1907 - 1935

-Pablo Picasso in 1907, influenced by simple geometries of African masks, inspired to break down the human form into angles and shapes, achieving a new way of looking at the human figure from many sides at once, dominated by wedges and facets that simulate depth


1909 - 1914

-group of Italian artists came together to celebrate the scientific and technological progress of the modern world, glory and fascination with MACHINES, influenced by Cubists, enjoyed prismatic effects of representation

Metaphysical Painting

1910 - 1925

-Italian movement, flourished in 1910s and 1920s, human beings cast in open and mysterious plazas of infinite space, introduction of alien elements, created enigmas, influenced by work of German philosophers, asks the viewer to interpret the meaning based on symbols, suggestions, and impressions

The Blue Rider


-Kandinsky, Marc
-Branch of Expressionism
-"The Blue Rider", EXPRESSIONISM, 1911, horses and the color blue, began to forsake representational art and move toward abstraction, intellectual and filled with theories of artistic representation, conceiving natural world beyond what was represented
influential essay by Kandinsky, expressed his theories on color and form for the modern movement


1913 - 1925

-powerful independent movement before the Russian Revolution, so named because they thought nonobjective reality was greater than anything else, produced canvases called "SUPREMACY OF PURE FEELING", forms float on white background, usually suspended in thoughtful arrangements, limited use of color, geometric shapes


1914 - 1925

-experimented with new architectural materials, assembled them in a way devoid of historical reference, Tatlin and others saw the new Russia as an idealistic center removed form historical reference and decoration, influenced by Cubists and Futurists, designed buildings with no precise facades, placed on dramatic use of materials


1916 - 1925

-"hobby horse", nonsense word, rejected conventional methods of representation, conventional manner in which they were represented, disillusioned by the slaughter of WWI, oil and canvas abandoned, READY-MADES, did work on glass, challenged relationship between words and images, meaning contingent upon location or accident


1917 - 1935

-Monddrian, Rietveld
-movement symbolized by MONDRIAN, reached its height between 1917 and 1930s, COMPLETELY ABSTRACT, make no reference to nature, painted on a white background, use black lines to shape rectangular shapes, primary colors, painted without modulation, perpendicular lines


1919 - 1933

-school of architecture and interior design, taught that all art forms should be designed as a unit, technology was embraced, students encouraged to understand all aspects of art, free combining of science and fine arts


1920 - 1929

-loosely organized 1920s movement, stressed the flat precession of synthetic Cubism and interest in the sharp edges of machinery


1924 - 1935

-Dalí, Kahlo, Miró, Oppenheim
-inspired by Freud and Jung, sought to represent an unseen world of dreams, subconscious thoughts, and unspoken communication, starting the the theories of Breton, biomorphic and suggestive forms, veristic tradition of using reality-based subjects, looking at a painting's title confuses, meant to puzzle, challenge, and fascinate

Mexican Muralists

1925 - 1935

-major revival, started doing old-age tradition of frescos, promoted a political or a social message, didactic paintings have unmistakable meaning rendered in an easy-to-read format, themes promote labor and struggle of the working classes, Socialist agenda

Art Deco

1925 - 1935

-Van Alen
-expresses refined taste in streamlined art, focus on industry, machine, and aerodynamics, developed in opposition to International Style, comes from 1925 Exposition, replaces vegetal forms of Art Nouveau with machine stylization, stylized automobile wheels and grills

International Style

1925 - 1935

-Le Corbusier
-Le Corbusier, house is a "MACHINE FOR LIVING", streamlined qualities of Bauhaus, celebrates clean, spacious white lines, skeleton system which holds the building up from within, great planes of glass wrap around, lack of architectural ornament and avoidance of sculpture and painting applied to the outside

Organic Art

1928 - 1935

-Brancusi, Moore
-uses a few basic shapes and builds upon these, more symbolic than depictive, belief in the honesty of simple shapes, sleekness and roundness of forms, makes sculptures seem deceptively simple, show great understanding

Depression Art Era

1930 - 1939

-Hopper, Lange, Lawrence, Wood
-American art recognized the plight of destitute, raised social issues and concerns, Documentary Photography, Lawrence's migration series, city life, country life, Harlem Renaissance

Late Twentieth-Century Art and the Contemporary World

Late Twentieth-Century Art and the Contemporary World

1945 - 2015

-Late modern art is a restless era of great experimentation, beginning with the achievements of The New York School
-Contemporary art is characterized by short-lived movements of intense activity
-Technological developments have brought about a flood of new products that the artist can use to express him- or herself
-Most artists work in a variety of media
-Modern architecture has been radically altered by the introduction of the computer, which makes drawing ground plans and sections easier and more efficient than ever before; the computer also checks automatically for structural errors
-The number of important female artists, gallery owners, patrons and customers has grown significantly in the late modern era, bringing about a closer equality of the sexes.

Abstract Expressionism

1948 - 1955

-DeKooning, Pollock
-New York School, first American avant-garde art movement, reaction to Mondrian and Malevich, seek a more active representation of the hand of the artist on a given work

Pop Art

1955 - 1965

-Hamilton, Lichtenstein, Warhol
-"Popular" art, coined by English critic, draws on materials of the everyday world,items of mass popular culture, consumer goods, famous singers, no distinction between "high" art or the design of objects, glorifies the common place, brings the viewer face to face with everyday reality, proclaim their art is not satirical, hard to believe given the images they use

Color Field Painting

1960 - 1969

-lacks the aggression of Abstract Expressionism, relies on subtle tonal values that are often variations of a monochromatic huge, images are mysteriously hovering in an ambiguous space, popular in the 1960s

Conceptual Art

1960 - 1969

-sees a work of art in its purest form, as a thought or the thought process in his or her mind, realizes a work in a representational form, more often looks down on an artistic product as a reduction of the original thought

Op Art

1960 - 1969

-Optical Art, strictly abstract work that relies on optical illusions, use fine lines in receding and emerging patterns to create three-dimensional effect, very in length and waviness

Performance Art

1960 - 1969

sees the act of making a work of art as the ultimate goal of the artist, may incorporate dance, music, film, etc.


1965 - 1975

-form of abstract art that denies representation of any kind, whether it exists on the objects themselves or in their titles, embraces complete abstract aesthetic, lacking all narrative, gestures, and impulses

Feminist Art

1975 - Approx. 2015

-Kruger, Sherman
-became easier for female artists to express themselves in a way that would bring interest in their art to a greater public, some feel free within the female framework, others seek recognition as significant artists without label of "feminist"


1975 - 2015

-sees International Style as cold and removed, cosmopolitan population of population need ornamentation, traditional architectural expressions, references to past styles

Site Art

1975 - 1995

-Lin, Smithson
-"Earth Art," dependent on its location to render full meaning, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, can be permanent or temporary

Video, Computer, and Digital Art

1980 - 2015

-increase in technology has given artists more ways to express themselves, take or create an original subject, alter the size, color, background, shape, and continuity of the object, freedom to change everything about the object gives the artist complete license

Indian Art

Indian and Southeast Asian Art

250 BCE - 2015

-Indian art stresses the interconnectiveness of all the arts: architecture, painting and sculpture
-Buddhist and Hindu philosophies form a background to Indian artistic thought
-A vibrant school of manuscript painting using brilliantly applied watercolors flourishes in India.

Buddhist Art

250 BCE - 1150

Stupa: mound-shaped shrine that has no interior, RELIQUARY, worshippers gain spiritual merit through being close to its contents, staircase leads Buddhists to prayer, central mast of three umbrellas, toranas at cardinal points of the compass act as gateways Describe
surprising uniformity, little negative space, often seated, usually posed in a lotus position with feet upward, drapery goes from tight-fitting to heavy robes over both shoulders, frontal, symmetrical, nimbus around head, many moods, but most have detached, head has top knot, hair has curls, long ears, curl of hair between brows, usually a base, depicts yakshas and yaks his, nature spirits, indicates incorportion into Buddhist pantheon

Hindu Art

1000 - 1650

not a temple for worship, residence of a god, solidly built with small interior rooms, just enough space for a few priests and individuals, "Womb of the World" is a small space in middle where sacred statue is placed, corbelled-vaulting technique makes it look like a cave, thick walls protect god from outside, antechamber, hypostyle hall, temples have more vertical character in Northern India, "Temple Cities" in Southern India, layers of concentric gated walls surround a network of temples, shrines, pillared halls, colonnades Describe Hindu

miniatures, illustrations done with watercolor on paper, Rajput School: most famous school of Indian painting, enjoyed illustrating Hindu myths and legends, especially the life of Krishna, care is lavished on portraits, crowded and colorful compositions, perspective is titled upward, floral patterns, delicacy, seem small compared to landscapes around them, heightened and intense us of color, black lines outlining figures, wide range of emotion, nature is friendly

Islamic India

1632 - 1648

-Time of Taj Mahal, a major work of Islamic India

Chinese Art

Chinese Art

250 BCE - 2015

-The philosophies of Laozi and Confucius permeate --- thought, including the fine arts.
-Calligraphy is the most respected --- art form.
-Painting formats include handscrolls, hanging scrolls, fans, and album leaves.
-Architecture is based on courtyard style houses that express the philosophy about family and social position.
-Art has a fondness for the monumental and the grand.

Japanese Art

Japanese Art

100 - 2015

-Has one of the best preserved continuous artistic traditions in the world.
-Zen Buddhists thought dominates much --- artistic production.
-The tea ceremony is a unique feature of --- culture.
-Ukiyo-e prints were originally sold as a middle-class art form in ---, and became incredibly influential among the avant-garde in Europe.

Art of the Americas

Art of the Americas

3500 BCE - 1492 CE

-Developed huge city states that prominently featured temple complexes revitalizing any on earth.
-Sculptures vary from the monumental used as centerpieces in great plazas to intimate works of jewelry for private adornment.
-Local materials play a large role in the creation of works of art: wood for Northwest Coast Indians, Adobe for Southwestern Indians, stone in Mesoamerica, and so on.
-Old civilizations form foundations for new ones: that is, pyramids often encase small structures the way cultures build upon pew existing sites.


600 BCE - 200 BCE

-Coastal Peru
-artists produced exceptionally fine polychrome pottery, most famous for lines drawn in the surface of the plateau that have remained preserved


1 BCE - 800 CE

-Near Mexico City
-little is known, city was one of the largest, flourished, sustained giant pyramid complex, living monuments, Masks survive in considerable number, not intended to be worn, represent spirits of the dead, violent culture seen in snarling


1 CE - 700 CE

-Coastal Peru
-pottery survives really well, flat bottom, can easily rest on table or shelf, U-shape with spout, done in limited range of colors


300 CE - 900 CE

-Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Yucatán
-easy to recognize, unusual concept of beauty, arching brow, indentation above nose, children put in head braces to create this symbol of beauty, long, narrow faces, full lips, figures elaborately dressed, costumes, narrative art done in relief sculpture, related to architectural monuments, lintels, facades, jambs, etc., stylized figures of Gods, painted, pyramids in wide plazas, center of civic focus, grandly proportioned temples accompany pyramids


550 - 1400

-American Southwest
-"ancient ones", most famous for pueblos composed of local materials, thickness of base walls determine size of overall structure, all pueblos faced well-defined plaza


800 - 1500

-Eastern US
-increase in agriculture led to population boom, MOUND-BUILDERS, created impressive earthworks, impressive city-states, meanings baffle, clearly could only be fully appreciated from air of high vantage points, didn't possess


1200 - 1400

-Mexico, around the Gulf of Mexico
-"mother Civilization of the Americas", first organized community of Indians in America, famous for gigantic heads, also produced smaller objects, blend animal and human forms in complex web, snarling frown, fully rounded volumes underlining their mass and proportions, short bodies, stocky thick necks


1400 - 1521

-Central Mexico, centered in Mexico City
-most famously known for gold jewelry that survives, jade and turquoise carvings, aggressive nature of Aztec religions, centering on violent ceremonies of blood-letting

Northwest Coast Native American

1750 - 2015

-Pacific Northwest
-Totem Poles, Woodcarving
-Wooden totem poles express ancestry and culture
-Represents stories, legends and/or local spirits
-Woodcarving a highly refined art form in the Pacific Northwest
-Wood surface must first be prepared
-Red cedar highly desired
-Totem poles not carved from the round and not meant to be appreciated from the back
-Poles always carved from single logs and are always painted
-Poles never worshipped and do not act as idols
-Longhouses appeared everywhere in North America
-Created by putting wooden poles in the ground and placing slats as crossbeams around the structure

African Art

African Art

500 BCE - 2015

-Much of the art is created around spirituality, the spirit world, and the role of ancestors in our lives.
-Artists prefer wood, but notable works are also done in ivory and metal.
-Art is rarely decorative, but made for a purpose, often for ceremonies.
-Architecture is predominantly made of mud-brick; stone is rare, but can be seen in Zimbabwe and Ethiopian churches.

Pacific Art

Pacific Art

950 - 2015

-Clearly defined gender roles determine which genres could be produced by which sex.
-Great woodcarvers, using this material to make everything from masks to bisj poles to meetinghouses.
-Artists use intricate lines to create masterpieces on tapa or bark or in tattooing.
-The Art of the Easter Islands, with it's giant stone carvings, is unusual in --- art.