Timeline of Period 3, 600-1450 C.E
Charlemagne was a ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. He is credited by many as ending the Dark Ages by using education. However he is most known for holding a form of centralized authority in the decentralized eastern Europe. For that he deserves 3.2 for innovated education and centralized authority.
The Schism between the eastern and western Christian Church, resulted in two new churches. In the east was the Roman Catholic Church, whereas in the west was the Orthodox Church. With the split came many differences like centralized power, language, who had control and religious views. The Schism deserves concept 3.1 for the two new churches to expand and intensify they authority.
The Norman invasion was when Duke William II of Normandy attacked England along side Breton and French soldiers. Its important because it marks the removal of the native ruling class with a new French headed authority. It also brought a transformation in the English language and the culture of England. It receives 3.1 for these reasons.
The First Crusade was a military expedition that started as a widespread pilgrimage by the Roman Catholic Church. The goal of it was for the Catholics to regain the Holy Land that was taken from them during the Muslim Conquest. In 1099 they took over the city of Jerusalem and killed many Christian, Jewish and Muslim peoples of the city. From this the Kingdom of Jerusalem was established and other Crusader states, for that 3.2.
The Fourth Crusade is very important to Europe history because it marked the date when the western Europeans sacked Byzantine capital of Constantinople. This marked one of the final acts of the Great Schism. From this the Latin Empire was established in Constantinople and lasted until 1261. For this key concept 3.2 is put in place, however they don't get 3.1 and 3.3 because for the most part the Empire was in a state of decline.
The Hundred Year War was a war that was waged between the English and French, the basis for the conflict was over land control which the English thought they didn't have enough of. The result of war was that many people died, however Louis XI benefited from it because it ended feudal nobility and allowed him to unite France. For England it also increased its naval power. For these reason it has concept 3.1.
The Bubonic Plague is considered to be the worst pandemic in the history of mankind. It's origins occurred in the arid Asian Steppe during Silk Road trade. During the time period of 1346-1353 almost 75 million all the way up to 200 million people were killed. After this a series of religious, economic and social upheavals took place, for that it receives 3.2.
The Silla dynasty was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. It was also one of the longest dynasties in the world. In 668 C.E the dynasty had full control over all Korea and kept it until the end of its reign. During its reign the Silla dynasty developed many mathematic and scientific discoveries, as well as religion. They deserve 3.2 for expanding their dynasty to the full size of Korea and innovating many architectural building from their interest in math and science.
The Sui dynasty was headed by a strict centralized government that was quite effective. The Sui emperors order the construction of palaces, repaired their defenses and sent military forces to other regions of the world. However the Sui is most remember was the creators of the Grand Canal. The Grand Canal was a canal that connected the northern part of China to the southern part. This was important because it allowed for a increase in national economy and forging of north and south China to happen. For these reasons the Sui deserves 3.1 for creating the Grand Canal, 3.2 for continuing the dynastic cycle and 3.3 for an increased economy in China
The Tang dynasty was known as a very successful dynasty in China. It's success is most credited to its second emperor Tang Tailing (627-649 C.E). The dynasty overall is known for its transportation and communication routes, equal field system, civil service exam, military expansion and foreign relations. The Tang receives 3.1 for expanding trade routes, 3.2 for having a long and successful dynasty and 3.3 for making business relations with other parts of the world.
The Umayyad was the first Islamic dynasty following Muhammad's death. They Umayyad's were composed of the most prominent ranks among Meccan merchants. They had their capital at Damascus, a thriving commercial city. They expanded the realm of Islam during their reign and made it a multiethnic religion. For these they receive 3.1 for expanding Islam, 3.2 for innovating the first Muslim dynasty and 3.3 for expanding their trade to all of their new territory.
The Nara Period marks the highest influence of Chinese culture in Japan. During this period a clan imposed centralized authority in Japan, influenced by the Tang, also they imposed the equal field system, Confucian and Buddhist support and moved the capital to Nara. Nara was modeled after the Chinese city of Chang'an. However during this period Japan still maintained their culture as well, for example their stilled observed Shinto, the indigenous religion. The Nara Period receives concepts 3.2 for continuing Chinese culture in Japan.
The Heian Period was the period in Japan when Buddhism, Taoism and other Chinese cultures were at their heights. It is also considered a high point in Japanese culture that many Japanese look back on as a good time. It was the period that the samurai rose from and the rise of the military class as well. This period is connected to key concept 3.2 for the innovation of the samurai and military power.
The Kingdom of Angkor was a kingdom located in SE Asia. This kingdom was strongly based off of Indian influence, in the 9th century the capitol Angkor Thom was built. It was microcosmic reflection of the Hindu world. Later during the 12th century when Buddhism became stronger, the installation of Buddhism temples became more common. For that they receive 3.2 for increasing India culture in SE Asia.
The Song dynasty was a very important dynasty to Chinese history. It allowed China to enter a golden age and also make very important discoveries that changed the world. For example the invention of gunpowder and the compass can be found in this dynasty. Also the creation of paper money which made the carrying of money much easier was issued in this dynasty. To add to its greatest the Song was also one of the best economies in the Medieval world. The Song receives 3.2 for continuing the dynastic cycle and 3.3 for increasing th economy in China and created great tools.
Genghis Khan was the founder of the great Mongol empire. He is known for his great leadership skills, intelligence and brutality. He was the man who got the Mongols to be the largest empire in history, he also birthed many great leaders like Kublai Khan, who was the founder of the Yuan dynasty. Overall however the reign of Genghis had concepts 3.1 for expanding the empire and tightening up the Silk Road, 3.2 for carrying on the Mongols through battles and 3.3 for being a middle man in Silk Road trade.
The Sultanate of Delhi was an Islamic state in northern India. They were known for building mosques, shrines and fortresses throughout their realm and were also known for art and literature. However they were never able to fully conquer all of India but they were known overall for bringing Islam to the northern region of India. For that they receive 3.2 for continuing Islam and bringing it to India.
Kublai was the grandson of Genghis Khan, unlike his grandfather Kublai was successful in gaining full control in China. He created the Yuan dynasty in China. While being ruthless in his conquering, Kublai also took interest in cultural matters like promoting various types of religions. Famous traveler Marco Polo even said Kubali was nice to the poor. Also during his reign in increase of long distance trade took place because of the nomad lifestyle the Mongols brought. For all these reasons Kublai deserves 3.1 for expanding Mongol size and increasing trade networks, 3.2 for preserving the Mongol empire and Chinese dynastic cycle and 3.3 for increasing trade in China.
At the age of 17, Marco along with his father and uncle traveled to China. On the journey they stopped at many famous cities like Baghdad and observed the culture. In 1275 C.E the Polo's landed Shang-Du and meet Kublai Khan, from there they went to Beijing. Once in China, Marco learned the culture and quickly became one of Khan's top workers and worked for him for 17 years. His travels were recorded in the book "The Travels of Marco Polo", for his work he receives 3.1 and 3.2.
The Yuan dynasty was the Mongol dynasty in China. It was founded by Kublai Khan after he conquered southern China making all of China under Mongol rule. During his rule he made the division between the Mongols and Chinese very clear. However he used the Chinese bureaucracy as his government. The impact of the Yuan dynasty was that in made China a very diverse place because Kublai had many foreign workers. The Yuan dynasty has concepts 3.2 for innovating Mongol rule in all of China.
Starting in 1127 C.E Genghis Khan and the Jurchen nomads extended their rule to northern China, by 1215 C.E they had captured the modern day city of Beijing. Following his death, Khubilai Khan extended Mongol rule to southern China and in 1279 C.E the Yuan dynasty was founded. Once rule was set the divided between Mongols and Chinese was very noticeable. The Mongols attempted to stay away from Chinese culture as much as possible. However Lamaist Buddhism was something that the Mongols liked and the ruling elites adopted it. The downfall of the rule of Mongols in China was a mix of financial issues and the plague. The Mongols receive concepts 3.1 for expanded their power, 3.2 for continuing the dynastic cycle.
Tamerlane was a Turkish ruler who conquered as far east as Anatolia to the border of India. He was able to conquer so much land in such little time because it was right after the fall of the Mongols. Tamerlane took care to establish a present in wealthy cities because he could heavily tax there. He deserves 3.1 for expanding his empire, 3.2 for carrying Genghis Khan's motto of conquering without setting up a central authority and 3.3 for increasing economies in cities.
The Ming dynasty was the last dynasty to rule in China. They are known for being the most long-lived brutal dynasty in China. Coming after the Yuan dynasty, the emperor eliminated all traces of them. The ruler Hongwu, reestablished Confucian education and civil service exam. During this reign their was a period of economic recovery because during the Yuan, the state of China had lacked in its public services. Also an increased of trade that be found during this period. For these reasons the Ming receives 3.2 for carrying on the dynastic cycle and 3.3 for fixing the economy.
Zheng He's expenditions consisted of multiple expeditions. The first three he ventured with his fleet, which was sponsored by the Ming dynasty to SE Asia, Ceylon and India. Later he went to east Africa and the Persian Gulf into Arabia. During these trips he brought gifts from China like silk and porcelain and in return he received exotic gifts he got from the places he went. For this he receives 3.1 for expanding exchange networks for China and 3.3 for getting economic goods from across the western hemisphere.
The Kingdom of Ghana was a kingdom that was located between the Senegal and Niger rivers in west Africa. As sub-Saharan trade increase, Ghana became the most important state in west Africa due to having lots of gold. Since gold was in high demand people would travel all the way across the horse Sahara to get their share. This influx of gold also allowed the kings to tax heavily on gold and become very wealthy. They also sold ivory and slaves. For these reasons Ghana has concepts 3.2 for lasting for such a long time and 3.3 for their trade.
The Kingdom of Zimbabwe was located in south central Africa. They were known for having one of the largest stone structures ever and for playing a role in Indian Ocean trade. The kingdom would send there goods to east Africa that would later be sent out on the sea lane, for this they receive 3.3.
The Mali Empire was the successor of the Kingdom of Ghana. Therefore they benefited from Saharan trade even more than Ghana. From the 13th C.E to the late 15th C.E, Mali taxed almost all trade passing through west Africa. Their capital city of Niani attracted merchants from across the land for their gold. They also were Islamic and provided Muslims with places to stay. For this they receive 3.2 for carrying on Ghana's culture and 3.3 for trade and 3.1 for caravan trade routes.
Mansa Musa was a ruler of the Mali empire in west Africa. He is known for his pilgrimage to Mecca, which along the way he graciously gave away lavish gifts to people he meet showing his kind heart. After his trip to Mecca, Musa had a new meaning of Islam and starting to build Mosques in cities where Muslim merchants visited frequently. He also allowed the most diligent students to travel to west Africa to learn from the best Muslim scholars. During his reign Mali was in a great state due to trade and Islam. Musa also set up a centralized government that would be an example for future states. For that he deserves concepts 3.1 for expanding Islam in Africa, 3.2 for keeping the Mali empire in power and carrying centralized government and 3.3 for increasing Saharan trade.
Ibn Battuta was a Moroccan muslim who at the age of 20 decided to go on the pilgrimage to Mecca. He ended up covering over 75,000 miles on his journey and it took him 29 years. This journey didn't just take him to Mecca put to almost all corners of the Muslim empire at the time. His journey is recorded in the Rihla, which is important because it gave a detailed account of the empire. For this it receives 3.1 and 3.2.
The Incan empire was a empire that was in western South America. It was conquered the Spanish in 1572 and the Spanish didn't really think much of it due to it not being as advanced as Spanish society. They were known for they very rich society and living high up in the Andean mountains, for that they receive key concept 3.2 for their language still carrying on today.
Muhammad was the prophet of Allah, who was sent down to Earth, the Islamic form of Jesus. He preached the Islamic faith throughout the area in which he lived due to his merchant lifestyle that made him travel a lot. For that he receives 3.2 because he innovated the Islamic faith and their interactions throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
The Abbasid Dynasty was the successor of the Umayyad Dynasty, which was the first big Muslim power in the Arabian Peninsula. For that reason they receive key concept 3.2. They also receive 3.1 for expanding themselves through trade in Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. From this trade they also receive key concept 3.3 for in increase in economic production.