Slater came to America in 1789 after working for a British mechanic who invented the most advanced British machinery for spinning cotton, and textile mills soon spread through New England.
In 1793, Eli Whitney created the machine that separated the seeds in a cotton ball from the delicate fibers. This machine lead to an increase in cotton production. In 1798 Eli Whitney manufactured military weapons. He designed and built machine tools that produced interchangeable parts. Machine tools were created all the way until 1860. The number of patents issued rose from 200 to 4,000 a year. If new machinery had not been produced, then a slow production of goods, thus the decrease in workers needed because production rates were low.
The boom in the textile industry was due to a number of factors. Firstly, the motivation to achieve prosperity in the Americas enticed many British mechanics to pose as laborers and sail to the United States. Because Britain had already industrialized, mechanics knew that they could become wealthy by sharing British secrets in the Americas, where natural resources were plentiful. Britain had cheap labor, but America had abundant natural resources. Improvements made in technology allowed for textile mills to be more efficient, and coupled with cheap labor, merchants could become wealthy very quickly. If the textile industry had not erupted in the early to mid 1800s, then numerous mechanical advances would not have been made to make profits; thus America would continue to be out-produced by Britain and would not have emerged as a major economic power in the world.
The Erie Canal was the first great engineering project in American history. Although it greatly altered the colony of its surrounding regions, it played a vital role in the growth of American economy. The Erie Canal brought prosperity to the farmers of central and western New York and the entire Great Lakes Region. Now that shipping and communication time was halved, products could be exchanged between the Northeast and Midwest more efficiently. If the Erie Canal had not been constructed, then a trade connection between the Northeast and Midwest would not have been as efficient; thus limiting trade and the growth of American prosperity on the world market.
The Market Revolution allowed for a connection to be made between Northeastern companies and Midwestern companies. As factories and farms produced more goods; legislators and businessmen created faster and cheaper ways to deliver the products to consumers. The construction of new roads and modes of transportation allowed for more efficient trade and migration of people to the Greater Mississippi River Basin. If the Market Revolution had not occurred, then important roads and modes of travel would not have been created; thus limiting trade and evolution of the American market.
If women had not taken textile jobs, then they would have less working and wage rights that were gained by working women unions, thus a less free America.
The introduction of an outwork system known as the division of labor increased output and cut the price of goods. During the 1820s and 1830s, merchants in Lynn, Massachusetts, destroyed artisans' businesses by introducing the division of labor within factories and made it very difficult for artisans to compete with the lower prices set by insightful merchants. If the Division of Labor had not been developed by merchants, then products would continue to be made by hand at a much higher price; thus interchangeable parts would not have been developed and utilized in the future.
The Waltham Lowell System ensured protective parents all over America that their daughters would maintain their lady-like composure. For example, under this work system, women would have to attend church regularly and were unable to consume alcoholic beverages. If the Waltham-Lowell System had not been implemented in workplaces all over the Northeast, then many women would not have been allowed to work at textile mills; thus companies would not have made as much profit, as they could pay women a fraction of what they had to pay men.
As outwork and factory systems spread,more and more workers became wage earners who labored under the control of an employer. Men, unlike women, were unhappy with their status as supervised wageworkers. As wealthy employers became more wealthy, more and more wageworkers looked for work to support their families. Carpenters, stonecutters, and cabinetmakers, among other specialized craft makers, developed a strong sense of identity that caused them to form unions and bargain with their master-artisan employers. They resented low wages and long hours, which restricted their family life and educational opportunities. If Unions had not been formed, workplaces would continue to disperse unethically low wages to workers and continue to maintain an unsafe workplace; thus wageworkers would continue to suffer throughout their lives in a constant struggle to survive.
Lyman Beecher promotes Sabbath Observance, he and other protestant ministers founded the General Union for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Sabbath in 1828.
The emergence of the middle class reflected a dramatic rise in prosperity. Between 1830 and 1857, the per capita income of Americans increased by about 2.5 percent a year. The surge in income, paired with the abundance of inexpensive mass-produced goods allowed for the middle-class to be carved out of the upper and lower class systems. The middle class was developed because of the improvements made in national and international commerce. The principle of the "self-made" man was derived from goals to achieve success in the middle and upper classes. Being extremely difficult to make it to the upper-class, many worked hard in their schooling and their apprenticeship in order to be successful and achieve the well-respected middle class life style. If the Middle class had not been developed, then the gap between the lower and upper classes would continue to be large; thus limiting very important jobs held by the middle class that were vital to the country's success; such as carpenters and woodworkers.
These were movement that condemned immigration and asserted the superiority of Protestant religious and and cultural values. Unemployed Protestant mechanics and factory workers joined mobs that attacked Catholic immigrants accusing them of taking jobs and driving down wages. If immigration had not increased, then nativist movements would not have been formed, thus no violence outbreaks in Catholic based areas.
The American Temperance society set out in 1832 to curb the consumption of alcohol. It’s nationwide campaign employed revivalist methods-group confession and prayer, and emotional conversion. If the American Temperance society hadn’t been formed, then drinking wouldn’t have been cured by self discipline, thus the average drinking rate annually wouldn’t have changed from 5 to 2 gallons.
Cultural diversity was the result of a vast wave of immigration. Between 1840 and 1860 about 2 million Irish, 1.5 million Germans, and 750,000 Britons came to America. If so many immigrants had not come to America, then cultural diversity wouldn’t have occurred, thus the United States wouldn’t have gained more skilled workers.
Poor immigrants were susceptible to disease due to crowded living conditions, ineffective sanitation systems and rampant poverty. In 1849 Cholera broke out in several large cities. If Cholera had not broken out, large cities may have become overpopulated, thus leading to a shortage of jobs and an increased number of unemployed.
The Second Bank of the United States was founded in Philadelphia in 1816. The bank was privately managed and operated under a twenty year charter from the federal government, which owned 20% of its stock. The bank’s one, major role was to stabilize the nation’s money supply, which consisted primarily of notes and bills or credit.
The Trail of Tears took place in 1835, with 14,000 Cherokees mercilessly rounded up and marched 1,200 miles. Along the way, 3,000 Indians died of starvation and exposure. Westward migration directly lead to the removal of Indians, and in 1830 Jackson pushed the Indian Removal act through Congress. If this act had not been passed, the Trail of tears would not have occurred, thus thousands of Cherokee Indians would have been spared and may have even coexisted with Americans.
The Election of 1824 encompassed a broad range of competitors. After the War of 1812, the aristocratic Federalist Party virtually disappeared, and the Republican Party splintered into competing factions. As the election of 1824 approached, five Republican candidates campaigned for the presidency. Three were veterans of President James Monroe's Cabinet: John Quincy Adams, John. C. Calhoun, and William H. Crawford. The other candidates were Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. Each candidate had strengths. If the Election of 1824 had not been won by John Quincy Adams, then the House of Representatives would not have been an established route of determining the president, thus complicating elections and leaving them solely to popular and electoral votes.
The Tariff of 1828 helped Jackson win the election, but lead to a major political crisis. South Carolina fiercely opposed the high tariffs, and in turn declared an Ordinance of Nullification; thus voiding the 1828 and 1832 tariffs. If South Carolina had not defied federal government and declared nullification and threatened secession, then the federal government would continue to place unreasonable tariffs on the southern states for the Northern states' benefit; thus Southern states would have maintained a stronger economy and may have been stronger during the civil war.
The Tariff of 1828, also known as the tariff of abominations, enraged the South; which at the time produced the world's cheapest raw cotton. Its main industry did not need government protection like that of the northern manufacturing businesses competing with Britain; thus tempers flared in the south. It cost southern planters about 100 million dollars a year, with northern manufacturers being favored by the government legislation once again. If the Tariff of Abominations had not been enacted, then the South would not have tossed the blame onto President Adams; thus leading to his waning popularity and eventually the election of 1828 being won by Jackson.
The election of 1828 was much different than the election of 1824. The development of modern-era campaigning strategies surfaced through the utilization of newspapers loyal to certain candidates and the selection of presidential rule based on popular vote. In 1824, about one quarter of the electorate had voted; and in 1828, more than one-half went to the polls. If this improved form of election based off of popular vote had not been established; then presidents would continue to be elected based on governmental votes over the citizens' votes; thus deteriorating the sole Republican system at the roots of American politics.
Adams called for bold national action. He endorsed Henry Clay’s American system with the three main elements: protective tariffs to stimulate manufacturing, federally subsidized roads and canals to facilitate commerce, and a national bank to control credit and provide a uniform currency.
The Destruction of the American system was the main goal of Andrew Jackson. He believed that Henry Clay's system- and all government-sponsored plans for national economic development-were contrary to the Constitution, and increased the burden of taxation. If Andrew Jackson had not destroyed this "American System", then four internal improvement bills would not have been vetoed in 1830; thus the federal government would have had more power and more expenditures.
Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States. The bank war escalated into an all out political battle. Jackson declared that his reelection represented the decision of the people against the bank. When the bank’s national charter expired in 1836, Jackson prevented its renewal.
Whig party arose in 1834 when a group of congressmen contested Andrew Jackson's policies and his high-handed conduct. They consisted of political fractions with distinct viewpoints. Celebrated the entrepreneur and the enterprising individual. Believed they country was made up of self-made men.
The Panic of 1837 threw the American economy into a deep depression. By 1843, canal construction had dropped by 90 percent, prices and wages had fallen by 50 percent, and unemployment in seaports and industrial centers had reached 20 percent. By 1843, most local unions and all the national labor organizations, and all the workers' parties had disappeared. If the Panic of 1837 had not occurred, then the Working Men's Parties would have continually rose in power; thus workers would have been able to bargain for better wages and better working conditions.
If Americans had not grown dissatisfied with their lifestyles, then they wouldn’t have sought to create utopias (Shakers embraced common ownership of property), thus no creation of the Fourierists.
By the 1840s, there were hundreds of minstrel groups, including a group of black entertainers, Gravitt's Original Ethiopian Serenaders. Without the production of racist and simultaneously humorous plays, racism would not have been taken as lightly by the majority of northern populations; thus slavery may have been quelled sooner.
If Smith had not done this, then there would not be a large amount of attention drawn to the Mormons, thus there would not have been such an intense hatred for Mormons.
In 1832, Emerson took a radical step by resigning his Boston pulpit and rejecting all organized religion. Without the very important focus on individual growth and development in society emphasized by emerson, communities across the nation would not have been established in search of utopian life; thus numerous reform movements aimed at improving society as a whole would not have been the same or may have not occurred at all.
If the Shakers’ growth had never slowed during the 1840s, then the Fourierists wouldn’t have been created (socialists ideas of liberating workers from capitalists employers to a slavish like system), thus no creation of the Oneidians.
The American Anti-Slavery Society bombarded congress with petitions to end slavery from 1835 to 1838. These petitions contained nearly 500,000 signatures; with the demand for the abolition of slavery within the District of Columbia, an end to interstate slave trade, and a ban on admission of new slave states. Without the bombardment of congress, then the gag rule would not have gone into effect, thus rights promoted by the Bill of Rights would not have been effectively violated.
As secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education from 1837 to 1848, Horace Mann lengthened the school year, establishing standards for subjects and recruiting qualified teachers for schools. If Horace Mann had not been so driven in improving school conditions, education would continue to be limited to the upper class; thus lower class citizens would not have an opportunity to an education and ultimately a way out of poverty.
If abolitionists hadn’t turned to mass communication (steam powered press to print their anti-slavery campaign), then the underground railroad wouldn’t have been established, thus the American Anti Slavery society wouldn’t have had Resistance to Civil Government created.
Brook Farm was one of the first attempts at a utopia in America, if it had not been tried, then many other Utopias such as the Shakers would not have been attempted, thus a less diverse America.
In 1841, Dorothea Dix began fighting for insane women jailed alongside male criminals. She persuaded Massachusetts lawmakers to enlarge the state hospital to house indigent mental patients. By 1854, she had traveled more than 30,000 miles an had visited eighteen state penitentiaries, three hundred county jails, and more than five hundred almshouses and hospitals. If Dorothea had not been so vigilant in the improvement of American society, then prison systems would continue to be even more inhumane than they already were; thus society as a whole would reflect the prison population, with government not playing its sole role of safeguarding its people.
If Brook Farm had not failed, then there would have been way more attempts for a Utopian society in America, thus leading to a push toward perfection.
Seventy women and thirty men attended the Seneca Falls Convention, which issued a rousing manifesto extending to women the egalitarian republican ideology of the Declaration of Independence. Without the spread of ideas pertaining to the equality of all peoples, women would continue to be oppressed as domestic slaves; thus preventing countless great female minds from achieving their dreams and improving society.
If Thoreau had not written his book, then there wouldnt have been a spark of civil disobedience to unjust laws, which would result in a lot less violence because the people wouldn’t act out against what they didn’t agree with.
If religious beliefs from Oneidians had not triggered new religious ideas, the Mormons would have never been formed (religious tradition that believed in a world on wonders, supernatural powers, and visions of the divine), thus no such religion as Mormonism in the world today.
By the mid 1850s, the Oneida settlement had two hundred residents and became self-sustaining hen the inventor of a highly successful steel animal trap joined the community. Without the establishment of these utopian communities, such as the Oneida community, reformists would not have had as much to base their ideas on; thus reform movements would have been vastly different and may have had more emphasis on political motives rather than moral and religious motives.
Just as the Atlantic slave trade enriched English merchants in the eighteenth century; the domestic market brought wealth to American traders between 1800 and 1860. Because the coastal trade in laborers was highly visible, it elicited widespread condemnation by northern abolitionists. Without the establishment of Coastal trade, sugar output would not have been as high; thus costal trade would not have been as stimulated.
The expansion of the southern plantation system was rapidly growing across America. The federal government played a key role in its expansion. Between 1776 and 1809, when Congress outlawed the Atlantic slave trade, planters purchased about 115,000 Africans. The demand for slaves for exceeded the supply; and as a result, planters imported new Africans illegally. Without the boom in domestic slave trade; there would not have been a continued demand for slaves through the international slave trade; thus limiting slave-state growth in the south.
During the Revolutionary era, blacks in the rice-growing lowlands of South Carolina successfully asserted the right to labor by the task. Under the new task system, workers were required to complete a daily task. By working hard, many finished their tasks by early afternoon and had the rest of the day for themselves to prepare their own fields. If the task system had not been put into effect, slaves would not have gained the freedom required to plant their own crops and sell on markets; thus the emancipation of slaves may not have occurred.
If the federal government had not played a role in the expansion, then Mississippi would not have become a slave state, thus white planters would not have imported enslaved laborers from Africa.
If the Alabama Constitution had not been created, then suffrage would not have been granted to all white men, thus no secret ballot.
If the federal government had not played a role in the expansion, then Alabama would not have become a slave state, thus white planters would not have imported enslaved laborers from Africa.
African Americans expressed their Christianity in distinctive ways. The thousands of blacks who joined the Methodist church respected its ban on profane dancing but praised the Lord in what minister Henry George Spaulding called the "religious dance of Negroes". Without the ingenious ways African Americans developed to worship, African religion would not have been preserved in the Americas; thus they would have fully assimilated into American society.
After winning independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government pursued an activist settlement policy. To encourage migraton to the refigured state of Coahuila y Tejas, it offered sizable land grants to its citizens and to American emigrants. By 1835, about 27,000 white Americans and their 3,000 African American slaves were raising cotton and cattle in the well-watered plains and hills of eastern and central Texas. These settlers far outnumbered the 3,000 Mexican residents, who lived primarily near Goliad and San Antonio. Without the political split into two American groups, there would not have been the battle at the Alamo, and consequently, General Sam Houston and his Texans would not have routed Santa Anna's army; thus Texas may not have been inducted as a state later on.
If Alabama Democrats wanted to win the votes of taxpaying slave owners, then they had to advocate limited government and lower taxes, thus having to attack Whig parties for favoring their higher taxes and providing more government support.
The inland system that fed slaves to the Cotton South was less visible than the coastal trade, but much more extensive. Professional slave traders went from one rural village to another buying strong and healthy "Negroes". The traders marched their "property" in coffles to Alabama, Mississippi, and Missouri in the 1830s, and to Arkansas and Texas in the 1850s. Without the establishment of the inland system, the southern cotton planter's wealth would not have been nearly as vast; thus the emergence of the cotton plantation social class would not have been as profound in Southern states.
A privilege minority of 395,000 southern families owned slaves in 1860, with their ranks divided into a strict hierarchy. The top one fifth of these families owned twenty or more slaves. The elite, only 5 percent of the South's white population, dominated the economy and owned 50 percent of the entire slave population. If the cotton planting elite class would not have emerged, there would not have been a competition or bad blood between southern "old money" and newly rich cotton planters; thus intermarriage between cousins would not have occurred among the wealthy.