Minority Groups

Women

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

70,000 to 100,000 people sentenced. May be caused by disruptions created by religious division and warfare.
Those who were most in need of security and influence, particularly old, impoverished single or widowed women made claims to possessing authority of magic.
80% of victims of witch hunts were women - single and over 40. Misogyny fueled witch hunts inspired by male hatred and sexual fear of strong women, and occurring at a time when not few women were breaking out under male control.

Midwives

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1700

Women were generally excluded from world of new science, but midwives oversaw delivery of children until eighteenth century. Trade often pursued by elderly or widowed women of lower social classes.

Reformation

1517 - 1563

Protestant reformers favored clerical marriage and opposed monasticism and celibate life. Challenged the medieval tendency to degrade women as temptresses and to exalt them as virgins. Biblical vocation as mother and housewife. Wives were also indispensable companions in their work. Expansion of grounds for divorce - equal right with men to divorce and remarry.

Wanted women to become pious housewives, so education of girls to literacy in vernacular.

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Was known to be a virgin. Used her gender to her advantage.

Scientific Revolution

1600 - 1750

Margaret Cavendish - contributions to scientific literature

Women associated with artisan crafts actually achieved greater freedom to pursue new sciences than did noblemen. Women worked in artisan workshops with husbands and might take over business when spouse died. Wife served as assistant.

Queen Christina of Sweden

1632 - 1654

Determined and benefited from patronage decisions (the only exception to the norm - women did not usually do this)

Jews

Nuremberg Laws robbed German Jews of citizenship

1935

Kristallnacht

November 1938

under orders from Nazi Party, thousands of Jewish stores and synagogues were burned or destroyed

Germans move against Polish Jews

1939

Nazis move Jews into ghettos

1940

separated from rest of Polish population
largest ghettos were Lodz and Warsaw

Jews from ghettos to death camps in Poland

1941 - 1944

death camps:
Kulmhof, Belzen, Sobibor, Treblinka, Birkenau, Auschwitz

Polish Jews lost civic standing and property

1941

Jews from ghettos to death camps in Poland

1941 - 1944

death camps:
Kulmhof, Belzen, Sobibor, Treblinka, Birkenau, Auschwitz

Final solution decided

1942