The First Americans Timeline

Events

Glaciers begin to recede and many large animal species become extinct.

15,000 b.c.e.

Plant cultivation begins in central Mexico.

9,000 b.c.e.

Cultivation of corn begins in the Southwest.

3,000 b.c.e.

Anasazi culture emerges in the Southwest.

100

Hernan Cortes completes his conquest of the Aztec empire.

1521

Opechancanough leads assault against English settlers in Virginia, beginning 12 years of warfare.

1622

English settlers defeat Openancanough.

1634

Plains Indians adopt the horse.

1700

Britain defeats France in the French and Indian War.

1763

The U.S. government moves Cherokees in Tennessee to Arkansas.

1808

At the battle of Tippencanoe, William Henry Harrison defeats an Indian alliance led by the Shawnee Prophet Tenskawatawa.

1811

Purchase of Florida.

1819

The Bureau of Indian Affairs is established.

1824

Cherokee Phoenix newspaper begins publication.

1828

Congress passes the Indian removal act.

1830

Sauk and Fox Indians unsuccessfully seek to recover territory in Illinois during the Black Hawk war.

1832

Cherokee removed along the trail of tears.

1838

Sioux wars.

1854

U.S. demands that Plains Indians move into reservation.

1867

Dawes Severalty Act provides individual Indians with up to 160 acres of land. The remaining tribal lands are sold.

1887

Sitting Bull is murdered in a confrontation with Lakota police officers.

1890

Indian Reorganization Act encourages the preservation and recovery of Native Americans’ cultural traditions.

1934

Termination policy with draws federal services from some 60 tribes.

1953