There were a series of 3 exiles with the final occurring after the destruction of Jerusalem. There was a permanent renunciation of idolatry.
Conquests of Alexander the Great
Approx. 331 B.C. - Approx. 320 B.C.
Alexander was tolerant of the Jewish people and gave them a large amount of autonomy during his reign. The Jews showed him Daniel's prophecy during his first incursion into Palestine.
Approx. 200 B.C. - 358 A.D.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes Desicrates the Temple
Antioches was a madman. Reaction to his reign sparked the Maccabean revolts during which the Jews had a brief period of self-rule.
Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Zealots
Approx. 167 B.C. - Approx. 135 A.D.
Pharisees were keepers of the law and middle class. Sadducees were aristocracy who did not believe in the resurrection of the dead. Essenes most likely withdrew to Qumran and the Zealots wanted to fight Rome.
27 B.C. - 180 A.D.
Allowed for a stable world with good infrastructure to spread the Gospel.
Reign of Caesar Augustus
27 B.C. - 14 A.D.
Augustus was Roman ruler at the time of Christ's birth.
Reign of Tiberius
14 A.D. - 37 A.D.
Tiberius ruled at the time of Christ's crucifixion.
Gospel of Matthew Written
Approx. 40 A.D. - Approx. 70 A.D.
There is much debate about this range. Most likely written in mid 50's to early 60's.
Reign of Nero
54 A.D. - 68 A.D.
Peter and Paul were executed during the reign of this hater of Christians.
Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
As a result of a revolt sparked in 68 A.D. Rome responded with the destruction of the temple.
Reign of Domitian
81 A.D. - 96 A.D.
The apostle John most likely wrote the book of Revelation during his exile on Patmos during Domitian's time on the throne.