Period 3 Timeline

Key concepts are: 3.1 - Expansion & Intensification of Communication & Exchange Networks 3.2 - Continuity & Innovation of State Forms & Their Interactions 3.3 - Increased Economic Productive Capacity & Its Consequences

Europe

Reign Of Charlemagne

768 - 814

Charlemagne was the first Frankish regional king to return Western Europe to a semblance of centralized government after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. He formed a state with the support of the pope of the Roman Catholic church, winning the support of many of Western Europe's Christian citizens and establishing the dual authorities of the emperor and the papacy in Western European culture. (3.2 - Continuity & Innovation of State Forms & Their Interactions.)

The Schism Between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christianity

1054

The Schism was the culmination of disagreements between the Eastern and Western sections of the Christian faith. In the West, the papacy of Rome was the authority figure; in the East, it was the patriarch of the Byzantine Empire. The Eastern Christians were very much against the use of icons in their worship, which led to their iconoclasm, an issue on which the Western Christians differed. Essentially, it was a power struggle between the sided over who would control the Christian faith, and the pope and the patriarch mutually excommunicated each other in 1054, creating the Roman Catholic church in Rome and the Eastern Orthodox church in Constantinople. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Norman Invasion Of England

1066

William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, bringing with him Norman government traditions and systems of land ownership. William greatly simplified the government of the region. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

First Crusade

1095 - 1187

The crusades were a campaign launched by Pope Urban of the Roman Catholic church to reclaim the holy land of Palestine from Muslim rule. Crusaders in the first crusade took Jerusalem, the main focus of their attacks, though it was later recaptured by the Islamic Empire, prompting further (unsuccessful) crusades. The crusades were an important demonstration of the power of the church in Western Europe, and were a large factor in the ushering of that region out of its 'dark ages'. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

The Fourth Crusade was the fourth attempt by Roman Catholic crusaders to retake Palestine, the land in which Christianity began. This crusade was an especially disastrous one for the invaders, who did not succeed in their goal. However, they did reach Constantinople, the capital of the weakening Byzantine Empire, which they raided extensively before returning home to Western Europe. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Years' War was a long-lasting series of battles over land of contested ownership. The two sides, England and France, fought frequently over several areas on the coast of the European mainland. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Central Asia/Middle East

Muhummad

570 - 632

Muhammad was the founder of Islam. Born in Mecca in 570 CE, he was husband to a caravan leader before the angel Gabriel allegedly came to him and told him to recite the word of God. His followers recorded his teachings in the Qur'an, the Muslim holy book. Islamic people founded the Islamic empire, starting with the Umayyad Dynasty, which conquered most of the Middle East and Western Asia, reaching through North Africa as far West as Southern Spain. The following dynasty, the Abbasid, administered the enormous realm and facilitated an age of learning and growth agriculturally, economically, and globally, as trade routes flourished and ideas spread. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks.)

Umayyad Dynasty

661 - 750

The Umayyads were the first Islamic Empire, founded after the origination of Islam by Muhammad in Mecca, on the Arabian Peninsula. The Umayyads were very focused on conquering and expanding their empire, and not so much on the administration of said empire. Because of their rapid expansion and their cultural history as merchants, the Umayyads helped facilitate trade over the large portions of land they controlled. However, when their bureaucracy became corrupt, they fell to internal revolt, to be followed by the Abbasids. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Abbasid Dynasty

750 - 1258

The second Islamic dynasty, the Abbasid came to power when the Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty to take control of the dar al-Islam. The Abbasid Empire employed an administration system similar to that of the Persians to govern the lands conquered by their predecessors, with a capital city at Baghdad. The Abbasids were involved in the Indian Ocean Trade Network and the Silk Road trade, bringing various advances, like the introductions of crops like sugarcane and cotton, and banking systems. Both of these things allowed the Abbasid economy to thrive and grow. The Abbasid’s high point came under the rule of caliph Harun al-Rashid, but after his death, the empire began to decline. Civil war and succession issues caused internal instability, and invasion from the Saljuq Turks presented an outside pressure. The Saljuqs eventually took over the Abbasids, the caliphs ruling only in name, and ruled the empire until the Mongols conquered Baghdad in 1258 CE. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions. Key Concept 3.3: Increased economic productive capacity and its consequences.)

Sultanate Of Delhi

1206 - 1526

The Sultanate of Delhi was an Islamic state in Northern India formed by nomadic Turks. The capital was at Delhi, and many mosques and fortresses were built in and around Delhi. The Sultanate also supported the arts and literature. It is important to note that this is an instance of Islam pushing Hinduism out of Northern India, a region where it had been rooted for hundreds of years. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Reign Of Genghis Khan

1206 - 1227

Genghis Khan was the first Mongol Khan to unite the Mongol tribes of the central Asian steppes into one large cavalry force. He used his newly unified troops to begin a campaign of Mongol expansion across Eurasia, quickly creating one of the largest land empires the world had ever seen. This allowed for much easier travel and, therefore, much easier trade and spread of ideas between cultures. Genghis Khan was not very concerned with the administration of his empire, and he never managed to conquer Southern China, which was his primary target for expansion. A main motive behind the Mongol expansion was to obtain more natural resources, as prior to their unification the Mongols were dependent on Chinese tributes for much of their food supply. The manner of Genghis Khan's death is disputed by historians. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Reign Of Khublai Khan

1264 - 1294

Khublai Khan was Genghis Khan's grandson, and he took control of the Mongol armies. Khublai focused more on the administration of conquered lands, allowing for the Mongol Empire to be more lasting. He also conquered southern China, ending the Song Dynasty and establishing the Yuan Dynasty. Khublai also helped promote trade across Eurasia on the Silk Road by continuing to maintain the road itself. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Tamerlane

1336 - 1405

Tamerlane, or Timur the Lame, was a self-proclaimed descendant of Genghis Khan who, in the tradition of his supposed forbears, conquered for himself a large land empire. It covered most of the Persian area of central Asia, and some of Anatolia. After Tamerlane's death, the empire fell apart due to succession issues. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Southern/Eastern Asia

Sui Dynasty

589 - 618

In the Sui Dynasty, the Grand Canal was constructed, connecting the economies of North and South China and allowing them to better function as a unified empire. During this time period, China attempted (unsuccessfully) to invade Korea, and fortified its Great Wall. The Sui fell because of high taxes and labor conscriptions, which caused revolts among the peasantry. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

The Tang Dynasty ushered in what many historians see as a Golden Age in China. The establishment of the equal-field system to combat land ownership inequalities and the use of the civil service examinations on Confucian law for prospective government officials were large factors in that. In addition, China experienced agricultural growth, population growth, economic growth, advances in banking and systems of credit, technological advances like gunpowder, the compass, and printing, and involvement in the Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade networks during the Tang Dynasty. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions. Key Concept 3.3: Increased economic productive capacity and its consequences.)

Silla Dynasty

669 - 935

The Silla Dynasty was a Korean Dynasty selectively influenced by the Chinese. Though China tried to conquer Korea, it only ever existed as s tribute state of China's, though the Silla adopted a similar system of government to the Chinese. Confucian thought was especially popular among the Korean elite. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Nara Period

710 - 794

Japan's Nara Period was the beginning of China's influence on Japan, and both Confucianism and Buddhism were introduced there. Japan did not lose their traditional Shinto beliefs, however. Nara government was not fully centralized, but regionally governed by clans. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Heian Period

794 - 1185

Japan's Heian Period was a time in which Japanese culture was purposefully and selectively influenced by Chinese culture. The main authority at the time was the emperor, though he was often a figurehead concealing the real power sources: extremely affluent aristocratic families. Chinese education and political thought were especially prominent in Heian Japan. The period ended because internal conflict and fear of becoming too Chinese. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

The Song Dynasty reimposed centralized imperial rule after the fall of the Tang. It was never a particularly strong dynasty economically or politically, as it had to deal with external invasions and financial issues. The Song participated in the Silk Road trade, and was renowned for its art and literature. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Mongol Conquest Of All Of China

1211 - 1279

The capture of China was a primary goal of the Mongols on their campaign of conquest. Although Genghis Khan could not achieve that goal, his grandson, Kublai Khan, did, and established the Yuan Dynasty in China. This marked the end of China's weakened Song Dynasty. China was thoughtfully administered by the Mongols, who were grudgingly accepted by the Chinese as having the Mandate Of Heaven, and therefore the right to rule. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Marco Polo's Trip To China

1271 - 1288

Marco Polo's trip to China, part of his extensive travels in Eurasia, occurred during China's Yuan Dynasty. The Mongols were the ruling authorities, and when Polo visited the court of Kublai Khan, the leader liked him and made him a governor of a small Chinese region. Polo went on diplomatic and trade-related trips for the Khan as well. Marco Polo stayed in China for seventeen years. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks.)

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

The Yuan Dynasty was established by Khublai Khan when he and the Mongols ended the Song Dynasty. The Yuan was an accepted dynasty by the Chinese, and it was believed that the Mongols had the Mandate Of Heaven. The Yuan was a prosperous dynasty, as it was part of the larger Mongol empire and involved in the flourishing Silk Road trade. However, Mongol law did restrict Chinese people; they could not serve in the government at all. Mongols also restricted their own assimilation to Chinese culture, forbidding intermarriage or for Chinese people to learn the Mongol language. Thus, resentment lingered between the two races, and eventually the Yuan fell to Chinese rebels. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

First Outbreak Of The Bubonic Plague

1347

The Bubonic plague was a deadly disease that killed thousands in the Middle Ages because of lack of general hygiene and the crowdedness of cities. Although epidemics occurred across Eurasia, the first outbreak of the plague occurred in China. The Silk Road was the primary factor behind the spread of the Black Death, as it and other trade routes facilitated interaction between cultures and the sharing of the bacteria that causes the disease. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks.)

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

The Ming Dynasty came about when the Chinese overthrew their Mongol overlords, led by Hongwu. The Ming revived Chinese traditions of Confucian education and government, and Chinese agriculture flourished as they rebuilt their economy. The Ming also continued to produce silk and porcelain, among other goods, facilitating the continuation of trade on the Silk Road. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions. Key Concept 3.3: Increased economic productive capacity and its consequences.)

Zheng He's Expeditions

1405 - 1433

Zheng He was a Chinese explorer who led a government sponsored maritime expedition to the Indian Ocean basin. The goal of the trip was to display Chinese power and affluence to the people of the Indian Ocean Trade Network, and gain China some influence in that region. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks.)

Africa

Kingdom Of Angkor

889 - 1431

The Kingdom Of Angkor was a very Indian-influenced civilization based in Cambodia, in South-Eastern Asia. The kingdom had both Hindu and Buddhist ties, and supported its economy with agriculture. They participated in the Indian Ocean Trade Network, trading especially with Java and Srivijaya. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Kingdom Of Ghana

Approx. 1000 - Approx. 1200

Ghana was the first of the Western African empires, based economically in the control of the salt and gold trade on Africa's Gold Coast. The capital of Ghana was at Koumbei-Saleh, and it was influenced by its interactions with Arabian traders in that Islam was introduced to West Africa, though there were no large scale conversions at that time. The Ghana Empire eventually fell to the control of the Mali Empire. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Kingdom Of Great Zimbabwe

Approx. 1100 - Approx. 1400

Great Zimbabwe was a South-Eastern empire on Africa that founded its economy in the trade of goods produced by the tribes of Africa's interior. Major goods traded were ivory, slaves, and luxury woods. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions. Key Concept 3.3: Increased economic productive capacity and its consequences.)

Mali Empire

Approx. 1200 - Approx. 1400

The Mali Empire was the successor to Ghana in Western Africa, and also based its economy off the taxation of the gold and salt trade in the region. Mali reached its high point under Mansa Musa, whose famous hajj made Mali a popular travel destination, especially for Muslims. Known for being rich in gold, Mali developed further with an influx of new people, many among them Islamic. One especially notable development of Mali's was the introduction of formal education there, seen in the University Of Timbuktu. Islam also became more popular in the region. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Reign Of Mansa Musa

1312 - 1337

Mansa Musa was a ruler of the West African Mali empire, most notable for his famous hajj, which made the world aware of the riches of Mali. He also popularized Islam more in Western Africa. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)

Other

Ibn Battuta's Journey

1325 - 1355

Ibn Battuta was a native Moroccan who traveled through Eurasia gathering knowledge about the various peoples and cultures there. He was Islamic, and his hajj, to Mecca, started the journey, which continued from there to North Africa, Palestine, Syria, Persia, the Swahili coast, Anatolia, India, China, and West Africa. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks.)

Inca Empire

1438 - 1572

The Incas were a South American empire that grew out of Olmec and Toltec traditions from the region. They settled by Lake Titicaca, and their highly successful agriculture allowed them to grow and develop as a society. They were primarily military-based, and very patriarchal. they also had a system of roads and messengers for long-distance communication. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and innovation of state forms and their interactions.)