The Reformation

Events

Babylonian Captivity

1305 - 1378

Papacy at Avignon, led to decline in papal prestige and growing antipapal sentiment, caused by belief that popes were captive of French, new taxes and criticism

John Wycliffe

1377

attacked papal authority; bible should be authority, followers known as Lollards

Great Schism

1378 - 1414

Multiple popes - one in Rome and one in Avignon

John Hus

1408

Lollards' ideas spred to Bohemia -> believed in elimination of worldliness and cooperation of the clergy

Council of Pisa

1409

group of cardinals formed their own council; denounced other two popes and elected Alexander V, no one listened -> now three popes

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Marin V elected as pope, other three popes removed, end of schism

Renaissance Popes

1447 - 1521

Corrupt (nepotism), supported Renaissance culture

Savanarola

1497

condemned unchristian conduct of Florentine nobles

Erasmus

1503

Believed christianity should be guiding philosophy for direction of daily life

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

causes England to break from Roman Catholic Church because he wants a divorce

Thomas More

1516

Wrote Utopia, believed cooperation and reason should replace power and fame

95 Thesis

1517

Issued by Martin Luther, criticized Pope Leo X's use of indulgences

Leipzig Debate

1519

Luther denounces authority of popes and councils

Freedom of the Christian Man

1520

Written by Luther; faith leads to salvation

Zwingli

1523

believed in abolition of images and relics

Peasant Revolt

1524

Luther sides with nobles to suppress rebellion

Charles V leaves Thrown

1526

Rome Sacked

1527

Marburg Colloauy

1528

Meeting of Zwingli, Calvin, and anabaptists; couldn't agree on communion details

Lutheranism in Germany

1530

by 1530 Lutheranism is popular in many German States

Act of Supremacy

1534

England complete break with Rome

Calvin

1536

believed in predestination

Council of Trent

1545 - 1564

meeting about reform in the Catholic church, reaffirmed doctrine, reform practice

Mary I

1553 - 1558

caused England to move back towards Catholicism

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Protestants given equal rights as christianity

Montaigne

1580

perfect example of humanist, essays