Period 2 Timeline

Events

Mayan Empire

Approx. 1800 BC - Approx. 900 AD

The early Mayans were agricultural based, growing crops like corn, beans, squash and cassava. During the middle of the empire the farms started expanding in highland and lowland regions. The Mayans formed many religious and cultural traits as well as the number system. They also showed advanced characteristics like pyramid building, city construction, and inscribing on stone monuments. The reasons for the fall of the Mayan empire are unknown but there are thoughts of environmental disaster, drought, climate change or disease/ overpopulation. Connects to 2.2

Trans Saharan Trade

Approx. 1000 BC - Approx. 1500 AD

This trade route was import because it was spread throughout a large region and many people practices trade on it. This trade route connected European countries to African empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. The trade was moved on camels. Connects to 2.2

Siddertha Guatama

Approx. 600 BC - Approx. 300 BC

He was born as prince and was either going to be a great military leader or spiritual leader. His father kept him in the palace away from religion and suffering. When he was 29 years old he left the palace on curiosity and saw people suffering. He reached enlightenment and became a Buddha. He dedicated himself to teaching followers. Connects to 2.1

Cyrus the Great

Approx. 580 BC - Approx. 529 BC

Cyrus was the founder of Achaemenid Empire. He conquered many areas of land through his rule. He united Persia under one ruler. After unifying Persia he took his army west to conquer the western part of Iran. When Cyrus and his army were going to take over Babylon the Jews that were in exile they welcomed Cyrus's army, and assisted them in over throwing Babylon. Connects to 2.2

Confucius

Approx. 551 BC - Approx. 479 BC

Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher. His real name was Kong Qui but was known as Confucius. His teachings focused on creating ethical models of family and public interaction, and setting standards. He reinforced societal values of compassion and tradition when the Chinese principles started to fall. By the Han Dynasty Confucius's ideas became the basis of the state ideology. He is now thought of as one of the most influential teachers in Chinese history. Connects to 2.1

Achaemenid Dynasty

Approx. 550 BC - Approx. 330 BC

The Achaemenid empire was the first Persian empire. This was the ruling dynasty of Cyrus the great and his family over the Persian empire. Each region had a regional Governor or Satrap. The Royal Road was built to keep all the the cities united. Connects to 2.2

Roman Republic

Approx. 509 BC - Approx. 27 BC

The Roman Republic was at the time when Rome was expanding from the city of Rome. It expanded through conquering and alliances. It spread to the whole Italian Peninsula then it spread to northern Africa, Spain and southern France. But in the 1st century BC they spread to all of France, Greece, and the eastern Mediterranean. The Government was ruled by two consuls, elected by citizens annually and advised by the senate. Connects to 2.2

Greco-Persian Wars

Approx. 492 BC - Approx. 449 BC

The Greco-Persian wars were a series of wars fought by the Greek city-states and Persia. The fighting was its greatest when the Persians launched two attacks on Greece's mainland. Even with Persia at its strongest with the accumulative defense of the Greeks succeeded against Persia. Ensuring that the Greek culture survives. Connects to 2.2

Socrates

Approx. 470 BC - Approx. 399 BC

Socrates was a Greek philosopher. His method clarified the concepts of good and justice. If there was a problem , break it down into questions and find answers to all the questions. He was morally, intellectually, and politically against the Athenians. He believed that "wisdom was parallel to ones ignorance" He also thought that "one must concentrate more on self development then on material things." His death could have been avoided if he left philosophy and went on minding his own business but instead he died by hemlock poison. Connects to 2.1

Peloponesian Wars

Approx. 431 BC - Approx. 404 BC

This war was between the Spartans and Athenians. Its believed that the war started because Sparta was afraid of Athens rise to power. The Spartans ally was the plague that hit inside the Athens walls killing most of the army they had. Sparta ended up defeating Athens leaving both bankrupt and there military not as strong as it was. Connects to 2.2

Plato

Approx. 428 BC - Approx. 348 BC

Plato was a Greek philosopher as well as mathematician. He was in the military during the Peloponesian war. The violence is why he left. He perused his hopes of a political career. In 399 BC Socrates execution had an effect on Plato that made him leave the Athenian politics forever. He left with friends off Socrates and traveled for twelve years. Connects to 2.1

Aristotle

Approx. 384 BC - Approx. 322 BC

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist. At age 17 he enrolled in Plato's academy. He tutored Alexander the Great. Then founded his own school and spent his time, studying, teaching, and writing. Connects to 2.1

Alexander the Great

Approx. 356 BC - Approx. 323 BC

He spent his childhood watching his father turn Macedonia into a military force. When he was still just a teen he helped his father in defeating enemies. He conquered the Persian empire. He was a great military leader and conqueror to expand his empire. Connects to 2.2

Mauryan Dynasty

Approx. 323 BC - Approx. 185 BC

During the reign of Asoka was one of the few times a population as a whole experienced extensive peace in India. Peace prompts prosperity and that helps the government want to support things like agriculture and trade. The trade routes were more secure for travelers during this time of peace. Iron became a big use in farming to have greater productivity in farming. Connects to 2.2

Gupta Dynasty

Approx. 320 BC - Approx. 550 CE

The Gupta dynasty started when a wealthy family rose to power and took over Magadha. The empire expanded control over surrounding kingdoms through military or marriage alliances. There great achievements in literature, music, art, architecture, and philosophy. After years of peace the military lost there "skill" and were conquered when a full scale invasion from the Hephthalites. Connects to 2.2

Ashoka

Approx. 269 BC - Approx. 232 BC

Asoka was one of the remarkable rulers in world history. After a bloody war he converted to Buddhism and said he would rule in peace. He promoted the spread of Buddhism. Pillars around the empire were inscribed with encouragements to live in harmony. Connects to 2.2

QIn Dynasty and Shi Huangdi (ruled)

Approx. 246 BC - Approx. 210 BC

First emperor of of a unified China. He was only 13 years old when he took the throne. By 221 BC had conquered much of modern China. Created a centralized bureaucratic state, uniform weights and measurements, and laws. He standardized Chinese writing. He created huge construction projects. He caused cultural and intellectual growth. Connects to 2.2

Han Dynasty

Approx. 220 BC - Approx. 280 AD

During the Han dynasty the people of China prospered in peace again. The rulers ruled under the mandate of heaven. their success was based on opinions of the gods. When the gods were unhappy with the emperor they would send a message in the form of a natural disaster to the Chinese people to overthrow the emperor. Paper, porcelain, and the wheelbarrow were invented in this dynasty. Acupuncture, piercing skin with needle and herbal medicine for illness also became very popular. Believed comets, and eclipses could predict future disasters. Corruption, political struggle and increasing population made a unified China impossible causing the decline of the Han. Connects to 2.2

Axum

Approx. 100 BC - Approx. 650 AD

Axum is a major importance for international trade. It is one of the holiest cities in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and is the center for Christianity in Africa. It was a city with much power. It would trade Ivory, silk, and gold with other countries. The political rulers used Axum's newly found power from trade to build a centralized state that was tightly controlled. Axum established its own currency in the third century AD. Ezana became king of Axum and embraced Christianity making it the dominant religion. Axum started to decline when the rise of Islam started and expanded from the Arabian peninsula to northeastern Africa. Connects to 2.2

Augustus (octavian)

Approx. 63 BC - Approx. 14 AD

Augustus was the founder of the Roman empire. He ruled for 27 BC- 14 AD. He was appointed to be priest when he was 16 years old and exiled his daughter and grad-daughter for offending principles. He was one of the most skilled and energetic leaders ever seen. He created a new roman peace and and prosperity. Connects to 2.2

Pax Romana

Approx. 27 BC - Approx. 180 CE

Pax Romana is the time of Roman peace and cultural achievement. It came after and extended time of civil conflict. The peace meant that the army was stationed away from the heart of the empire. the legions were placed where there was thought to me trouble caused. Augustus formed a police force (the vigiles) to protect emperor and maintain order in the city of Rome. Connects to 2.2

Jesus

Approx. 4 BC - Approx. 30 AD

Jesus was the founder of Christianity. He is considered the incarnation of god and his teachings and example for living a spiritual life. Herod the Great was ruler at the time and hearing of his birth felt threatened so he had all male children under 2 years old be killed. Joseph heard of this from an angel and took Mary and Jesus to Egypt until they heard of Herod's death. At 12 years old Jesus went with his parents to Jerusalem and became separated he was found days later in a temple talking about affairs with Jerusalem elders. After he was Baptized he went to a desert to fast and meditate for 40 days and nights. Connects to 2.1

Yellow Turban Rebellion

Approx. 184 CE - Approx. 204 CE

The yellow turban rebellion was a revolt from the peasants revolt in China during the rule of emperor Ling. This revolt contributed to the fall of the Han dynasty. The yellow turban rebellion was led by Zhang Jue a Taoist faith healer. Things erupted in Eastern/central Asia. The Han sent huge armies but efforts did nothing due to corruption in the imperial government. Connects to 2.1

Christanity offical religion of Roman religions

Approx. 280 AD - Approx. 337 AD

When Constantine rose to become emperor in the west he advanced the Christian cause more intention. He built new churches in the new capital. The forced expansion of Christianity was becoming the "everyday social fabric" connects to 2.1

Collapse of Western Roman Empire

Approx. 476 CE

In 476 the last Roman empire was over thrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer. He was the first Barbarian to rule Rome. Connects to 2.2