Cuneiform Writing begins- first of its mind.
Sumerians ruled in the form of kings and monarchies.
Sargon creates the first empire of Akkad. He was known for traveling with his army. The kingdom falls after constantly rebellions throughout the territory.
Hammurabi was the influential of Babylon. He was known for the Code of Laws, which was created to reform a free-for-all society.
A group of Hebrews travel with Moses to Palestine and become Israelites. Later, the kingdom is united under King Solomon and King David.
He is the king of Assyria, known for their iron metallurgy and the vast kingdom they controlled.
King Nebuchadnezzar ruled the new Babylonian empire. They were known for building the mysterious Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Permanent residence in settlements occur.
Kings were considered divine rulers who were actual Gods. Throughout the kingdoms, these kings,or pharaohs, gradually lost their power and influence.
The increasing temperature and drier climate forced people to move inwards toward the Nile River, helping establish the first agricultural societies.
Located along the Nile after the climate change of 10000 BCE moved people inwards. This is the time period when trade actively began with the Mesopotamian people.
People now live in small kingdoms and trade with each other.
Political skirmishes between Egypt and Nubia begin. Egypt wanted Nubia's precious metals and Nubia wanted control of Upper Egypt and their Nile River trading system. Important to note that while all of this is going on trading continues.
Strong Nubian realm and center for activity.
Unification of Egypt took place under Menes (Narmer). He named Memphis the capital.
The Old Kingdom is when the pharaohs had the greatest power. Huge pyramids were built (Khufu's is largest) to honor them. The increase of agricultural power is what lead to transition to Middle Kingdom.
Citizens with a lot of agricultural wealth began to dominate rather than the pharaohs (power was soon returned) and this was transition to Middle Kingdom.
During the Middle Kingdom the pharaohs' powers were returned and they remained effective leaders.
Iron metallurgy was slow at first, not like in Mesopotamia. After the Hyksos invaded. the popularity of it grew.
The Hyksos captured the capital of Egypt.
The Hyksos were powerful SW Asian migrants who had the advantages of bronze weapons and horse-drawn chariots.
At this time there were around 4 million people living in Egypt. The pharaohs had some power, however the responsibilities were split into different departments. Because of tomb raiders, pyramids were no longer built for these leaders. Instead, the Valley of Kings (hidden tombs) was created.
After the Hyksos were pushed out of Egypt with their own bronze weapons, the leaders realized that conquering and owning more land would help build empire. This man restored Egyptian dominance in Nubia and led 17 campaigns to dominate the coast. When he ruled Egypt expanded all the way down to the 5th cataract.
Led the Kingdom of Egypt. Although it was rare in Egypt to have women rulers, also called kandake, it was very common in Nubia.
Nubia's capital Kush is destroyed in Aksumite's conquering campaign.
This pharaoh was responsible for the movement towards monotheism associated with the sun god Aten. He claimed Aten was the ultimate ruler and he was the only God. After he died, priests converted back to polytheism.
This signifies the end of Ancient Egypt as we know it/
This new capital became the political center because it was less vulnerable to threats because it was farther away.
The Bantu were the most influential Sub-Saharan people of Africa. They spread agriculture, herding, religion, and their language when they migrated to the Southern and Eastern parts of Africa.
Iron metallurgy became popular in the Southern region after the exploitation of iron-ore mines near the Great Lakes region. Meroe was considered the iron-ore capital.
Includes Chapter 9
Agriculture starts along the Indus River valley.
There is little known about the origins of this society because the area is underwater. In addition, researchers cannot decipher their written records. Their decline was caused by a series of natural events- because of the dryer climate and forest deforestation, there was less agricultural yield which led to less food for society.
Dravidian people had established neolithic villages along the river. They cultivated wheat, barley, and cotton. These soon led to development of small cities, serving as political, social, and cultural centers. Earliest society is Harappan.
This capital served as a thriving economic center. There were many different specialized labor positions, and with that came social distinctions. The rich and poor lived in different houses, and that's all we really know because of the undecipherable writing. The rulers were supreme, even though they did not build pyramids, temples, or tombs.
The early Aryans and Dravidians traded with the Mesopotamians through their various land and sea routes. They traded copper, ivory, and beads for leather and tools.
Due to the decline of the Harappan society, foreigners began to take over parts of Northern India. These migrations took place very slowly with no organized military campaign.
Aryans migrate from south Asia, bringing along with them the idea of Indra- the god of war. He represented the military strength of this group.
Works of poetry and writing that were dedicated to the different Aryan Gods. The most important of four was the Rig Veda. It helped inspire the Vedic age, and reflected society during this time.
Not much known about these societies, other than they had a large amount of pottery and bone tools. The population growth is what led to eventual organized government, foreshadowing the dynasties to come.
Along the Chang Jiang River and Yellow River neolithic villages are created.
The Xia Dynasty was the first of China. The ruler was Yu, known for controlling the floods and the cultivation of rice. Until recently, this dynasty was thought of as "legendary" because there was no evidence of existent (later proved wrong). The capital was Erlitou, and was the smallest dynasty out of all.
They took over after gradually replacing the Xia. We know this based on written records, which greatly helped clarify Chinese life and society. They were able to take over because of new technology like bronze metallurgy and horse-drawn chariots. They had a DECENTRALIZED government with a large army. Eventually fell to Zhou Dynasty because or ineffective organization.
The largest of all dynasties, the Zhou were well organized and had a decentralized government. They created the Mandate of Heaven, a set of principles explaining political action. Heavenly power was granted to leading individuals. Each territory had to pay taxes and send men for the army. In the end, it was the disobeying subordinates and internal conflict that led to the Period of Warring States.
Up until this point, the Steppe nomads were nomadic and pastoral people. In 1000 BCE, they became a powerful Nomadic society. It took so long for this transition to occur because the climate of this region limited agricultural development.
This huge book of literature/poetry reflected thoughts of society, including any political, religious, ritual, and human affair ideals.
This is called the Period of Warring States because the broken territories of the fallen Zhou Dynasty were all fighting for control. In the end, it was Qin (another subordinate king) who took control and returned central government in 221 BCE.
1st large wave of immigration comes from Siberia to Alaska. Traveled using a land bridge- found after the end of the ice age
Foraging for food becomes to difficult due to the little amount of large game left and the warming climate they did not adjust to
Had a rich diet, but did have domesticated animals. They had no use for wheeled vehicles hence the labor was all human. The had ceremonial centers where the ruling elites lived. Their three main capitals were San Lorenzo, La Venta, and Tres Zapotes, all of these were known abundant rain and plentiful harvest. They had social classes with ruling elites and common subjects, and are known for the colossal heads they built. They traded jade and obsidian, an extremely sharp rock used for weapons and tools. They fell into decline because of civil conflict.
This city, located in northern Mexico, flourished while other cities to the south collapsed. It brought political stability to the Yucatan peninsula and worked to end hostile attitudes (more adaptive culture).
Located in Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras which was an excellent area for farming.
This was the main ceremonial center for the Mayas. It fell to Teotihuacan in 400 CE. This was located in the the lowlands, where they had bad soil, but built terraces to trap silt. They mainly traded cacoa beans.
Most important political center for the Mayas. Here, they built over 80 temples, one including the Great Temple of Jaguar. It was organized through small-city kingdoms.
Possibilities for Mayan decline include: Foreign invasion, civil conflicts, failure of water control that led to floods, and natural catastrophes. Much of the area is now covered up by tropical jungles, secrets hidden away forever.