European Monarchs

Main

Papacy

Death of Peter

Approx. 64 AD

Linus

67 AD - 76 AD

Anacletus (Cletus)

76 AD - 88 AD

His name is commemorated in Eucharist Prayer I.

Clement I

88 AD - 97 AD

He is also known as Clement of Rome.

Evaristus

97 AD - 105 AD

Alexander I

105 AD - 115 AD

Inaugurated the custom of blessing houses with holy water.

Sixtus I

115 AD - 125 AD

The Latin name Sixtus means "sixth", the sixth successor of Peter.

Telesphoros

125 AD - 136 AD

Inaugurated the seven-week fast before Easter.

Hyginus

136 AD - 140 AD

Along with St. Justin Martyr, Hyginus was well-known for defending the Church.

Pius I

140 AD - 155 AD

The first pope to function as Bishop of Rome.

Anicetus

155 AD - 166 AD

Soter

166 AD - 175 AD

Introduced Easter as an annual liturgical feast in Rome.

Eleutherius

175 AD - 189 AD

Served as a deacon to Pope Anicetus. Pope during the conversion of the legendary King Lucius of England.

Victor I

189 AD - 198 AD

The first African pope.

Zephrynus

199 AD - 217 AD

Callistus I

217 AD - 222 AD

Urban I

222 AD - 230 AD

Pontian

230 AD - 235 AD

The first pope to abdicate his office.

Anterus

235 AD - 236 AD

Died a natural death after serving as pope for less than two months.

Fabian

236 AD - 250 AD

One of the most respected popes of the early Church.

Cornelius

251 AD - 253 AD

Lucius I

253 AD - 254 AD

Stephen I

254 AD - 257 AD

Sixtus II

257 AD - 258 AD

This highly venerated martyr was beheaded by order of the Emperor Valerian.

Dionysius

260 AD - 268 AD

His election to the papacy was delayed because of Christian persecution in Rome.

Felix I

269 AD - 274 AD

Eutychian

274 AD - 283 AD

Caius

283 AD - 296 AD

The Roman Empire is partitioned into West and East.

Marcellinus

296 AD - 304 AD

Marcellus

308 AD - 309 AD

Eusebius

309 AD - 310 AD

Melchiades

311 AD - 314 AD

Sylvester I

314 AD - 335 AD

During his pontificate, the first ecumenical council (in Nicaea) was held.
*Construction of St. Peter's Basilica begins in 330.
*Seat of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople in 331.

Council of Nicea

May 20, 325 - June 19, 325

Called by Constantine I

Construction of St. Peter's Basilica Begins

330 AD

Mark

336 AD

Julius I

337 - 352

He strongly defended the Council of Nicaea's teaching on the divinity of Christ.

Liberius

352 - 366

Damascus

366 AD - 384 AD

He authorized a new Latin translation of the New Testament.
*Barbarian invasions begin in 375 and continue to 568.

First Council of Constantinople

May 381 - June 381

Called by Theodosius I

Siricius

384 AD - 399 AD

Anastasius

399 AD - 401 AD

Innocent I

401 AD - 417 AD

Zosimus

417 AD - 418 AD

Boniface I

418 AD - 422 AD

He is the author of this familiar axiom, "Rome has spoken; the cause is finished."

Celestine I

422 AD - 432 AD

The Council of Ephesus was held during his pontificate.

Council of Ephesus

June 22, 431 - July 31, 431

Called by Theodosius II

Sixtus III

432 AD - 440 AD

He showed remarkable leadership for building Church unity.

Leo I (the Great)

440 AD - 461 AD

He and Pope Gregory (590-604) are the only two popes to be called "the Great." Leo courageously confronted Attila the Hun and neutralized other barbaric invaders.

Council of Chalcedon

October 8, 451 - November 1, 451

Hilary

461 AD - 468 AD

Simplicius

468 AD - 483 AD

Felix III

483 AD - 492 AD

Gelasius

492 - 496

He was first pope to be called "Vicar of Christ."

Duo Sunt (Famuli Vestrae Pietatis)

494

Letter written by Pope Gelasius I to Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, expressing the doctrine of two swords.

Anastasius II

496 - 498

Symmachus

498 - 19 July 514

Hormisdas

20 July 514 - 6 August 523

John I

523 - 526

He was first pope to travel to the East (Constantinople).

Felix IV

526 - 530

Boniface II

530 - 532

He was the first pope of German extraction.

John II

533 - 535

Agapitus

535 - 536

He strongly opposed the Arian heresy, which held that that Jesus Christ was not the Son of God.

Silverius

536 - 537

He was the first pope to resign his office.

Vigilius

537 - 555

Second Council of Constantinople

May 5, 553 - June 2, 553

Pelagius I

556 - 561

John III

561 - 574

*Muhammad (570-632), the founder of Islam, was born during John III's papacy.

Benedict I

574 - 579

Pelagius II

579 - 590

He was the second pope of German extraction.

Gregory I (the Great)

590 - 604

The first pope to have been a monk, his name is closely associated with Gregorian chant.

Sabinian

604 - 606

Boniface III

607

He died of natural causes nine months into his papacy.

Boniface IV

608 - 615

His pastoral style was modeled on Pope Gregory's papacy.

Deusdedit

615 - 618

During his pontificate, Rome suffered the ravages of an earthquake and the plague.

Boniface V

619 - 625

Known for his compassion for the poor, he distributed his entire wealth to the needy.

Honorius

625 - 638

John IV

640 - 642

Severinus

640

He died two months after his consecration.

Theodore I

642 - 649

Martin I

649 - 655

He was the last pope to be recognized as a martyr.

Eugene I

654 - 657

Vitalian

657 - 672

Adeodatus II

672 - 676

Donus

676 - 678

Agatho

678 - 681

Third Council of Constantinople

November 7, 680 - September 16, 681

Leo II

682 - 683

He was very pastoral in helping the poor and in advancing the quality of Church music.

Benedict II

684 - 685

John V

685 - 686

Illness marked his entire pontificate.

Conon

686 - 687

Sergius

687 - 701

He introduced the singing of the "Lamb of God" at Mass.

John VI

701 - 705

John VII

705 - 707

Constantine

708 - 715

Sisinnius

708

He died of natural causes twenty days after his election.

Constantine

708 - 715

He spent one full year in Constantinople to improve relations between Rome and the East.

Second Council of Nicaea

September 24, 787 - October 23, 787

Fourth Council of Constantinople

October 869 - February 870

Antipope John XVI

997 - 998

Sylvester II

999 - 1003

John XVIII

1003 - 1009

John XVII

1003

Sergius IV

1009 - 1012

Antipope Gregory VI

1012

Benedict VIII

1012 - 1024

John XIX

1024 - 1032

Benedict IX

1032 - 1045

Deposed twice and restored

Sylvester III

1045

Considered by some to be an antipope

Benedict IX

1045

Deposed twice and restored

Gregory VI

1045 - 1046

Clement II

1046 - 1047

Benedict IX

1047 - 1048

Deposed twice and restored

Damasus II

1048

Leo IX

1049 - 1054

Victor II

1055 - 1057

Stephen X

1057 - 1058

Antipope Benedict X

1058

Nicholas II

1058 - 1061

Antipope Honorius II

1061 - 1072

Alexander II

1061 - 1073

Gregory VII

1073 - 1085

Antipope Guibert/Clement III

1080 - 1100

Victor III

1086 - 1087

Urban II

1088 - 1089

Paschal II

1099 - 1118

Antipope Theodoric

1100

Antipope Aleric

1102

Antipope Maginulf/Sylvester IV

1105 - 1111

Antipope Gregory VIII

1118

Also known as Burdin

Gelasius II

1118 - 1119

Callistus II

1119 - 1124

First Council of the Lateran

March 18, 1123 - April 5, 1123

Honorius II

1124 - 1130

Antipope Celestine II

December 16, 1124 - December 17, 1124

Innocent II

1130 - 1143

Antipope Anacletus II

February 14, 1130 - January 25, 1138

Antipope Victor IV (Gregory Conti)

1138

Second Council of the Lateran

April 1139

Celestine II

1143 - 1144

Lucius II

1144 - 1145

Eugene III

1145 - 1153

Anastasius IV

1153 - 1154

Adrian IV

1154 - 1159

Antipope Victor IV (Octavius)

1159 - 1164

Alexander III

1159 - 1181

Antipope Paschal III

1165 - 1168

Antipope Callistus III

1168 - 1177

Antipope Innocent III

1178 - 1180

Third Council of the Lateran

March 1179

Lucius III

1181 - 1185

Urban III

1185 - 1187

Gregory VIII

1187

Clement III

1187 - 1191

Celestine III

1191 - 1198

Innocent III

1198 - 1216

Fourth Council of the Lateran

November 1215

Honorius III

1216 - 1227

Gregory IX

1227 - 1241

Celestine IV

1241

Innocent IV

1243 - 1254

First Council of Lyon

June 28, 1245 - 1245

Alexander IV

1254 - 1261

Urban IV

1261 - 1264

Clement IV

1265 - 1268

Gregory X

1271 - 1276

Second Council of Lyon

May 7, 1274 - July 17, 1274

Innocent V

1276

Adrian V

1276

John XXI

1276 - 1277

Nicholas III

1277 - 1280

Martin IV

1281 - 1285

Honorius IV

1285 - 1287

Nicholas IV

1288 - 1292

Celestine V

1294

Boniface VIII

1294 - 1303

Unam Sanctam

November 18, 1302

Issued by Boniface VIII

Benedict XI

1303 - 1304

Clement V

1305 - 1314

Avignon Papacy

1309 - Approx. 1377

Council of Vienne

October 1311 - May 1312

John XXII

1316 - 1334

Antipope Nicholas V

1328 - 1330

Benedict XII

1334 - 1342

Clement VI

1342 - 1352

Innocent VI

1352 - 1362

Urban V

1362 - 1370

Gregory XI

1370 - 1378

Urban VI

1378 - 1389

Antipope Clement VII (Robert of Geneva)

1378 - 1394

Western Schism

1378 - Approx. 1417

Boniface IX

1389 - 1404

Antipope Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna)

1394 - 1417

Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Cossa)

1400 - 1415

Innocent VII

1404 - 1406

Gregory XII

1406 - 1415

Council of Pisa

1409

Attempted to end Western Schism by deposing Benedict XIII and Gregory XII. Alexander V was elected, but lived only a few months. He was succeeded by John XXIII.

Antipope Alexander V (Pietro Philarghi)

1409 - 1410

Council of Constance

November 4, 1414 - April 22, 1418

Martin V

1417 - 1431

Eugene IV

1431 - 1447

Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence

July 23, 1431 - April 1442

Antipope Felix V (Amadeus of Savoy)

1439 - 1449

Nicholas V

1447 - 1455

Callixtus III

1455 - 1458

Pius II

1458 - 1464

Paul II

1464 - 1471

Sixtus IV

1471 - 1484

Innocent VIII

1484 - 1492

Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

Pius III

1503

Julius II

1503 - 1513

Fifth Council of the Lateran

1512 - 1517

Leo X

1513 - 1521

Adrian VI

1522 - 1523

Clement VII

1523 - 1534

Paul III

1534 - 1549

Council of Trent

1545 - 1565

1545-1547 (sessions 1-8, Trent, Paul III); 1547 (session 9-11, Bologna, Paul III), 1551-1552 (sessions 12-16, Trent, Julius III); 1559-1565 (sessions 17-25, Trent, Pius IV)

Julius III

1550 - 1555

Paul IV

1555 - 1559

Marcellus II

1555

Pius IV

1559 - 1565

Pius V

1566 - 1572

Gregory XIII

1572 - 1585

Sixtus V

1585 - 1590

Urban VII

1590

Gregory XIV

1590 - 1591

Innocent IX

1591

Clement VIII

1592 - 1605

First Vatican Council

December 8, 1869 - July 18, 1870

Second Vatican Council

1962 - 1965

England

William the Conquerer

1066 - 1087

William II

1087 - 1100

Henry I

1100 - 1135

Stephen

1135 - 1154

Matilda

7 April 1141 - 1 November 1141

Henry II

1154 - 1189

Richard I

July 6, 1189 - April 6, 1199

John I

April 6, 1199 - October 19, 1216

Henry III

October 19, 1216 - November 16, 1272

Edward I

November 16, 1272 - July 7, 1307

Edward II

July 7, 1307 - January 25, 1327

Edward III

January 25, 1327 - June 21, 1377

Richard II

1377 - 1399

Henry IV

1399 - 1413

Henry V

1413 - 1422

Henry VI

1422 - Approx. 1461

Edward IV

Approx. 1461 - 1483

Richard III

1483 - 1485

Edward V

1483

Henry VII

1485 - 1509

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

Lady Jane Grey

July 10, 1553 - July 19, 1553

Mary I

Jul 20, 1553 - 1558

Elizabeth I

1559 - 1603

James I

1603 - 1625

Charles I

03/27/1625 - 01/30/1649

Oliver Cromwell

1649 - 1658

Richard Cromwell

1658 - 1659

Charles II

1660 - 1685

James II

1685 - 1688

France

Charles VII

1422 - 1461

Louis II

1461 - 1483

Charles VIII

1483 - 1498

Louis XII

1498 - 1515

Francis I

1515 - 1547

Henry II

1547 - 1559

Francis II

1559 - 1560

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Spain

Isabella I (Castile)

1474 - 1504

Ferdinand V and II (Castile)

1475 - 1504

Ferdinand V and II (Aragon)

1479 - 1516

Juana (Castile)

1504 - 1555

Philip I (Castile)

1506

Charles I (Spain)

1516 - 1556

Juana (Aragon)

1516 - 1555

Philip II

1556 - 1598

Philip III

1598 - 1621

Philip IV

1621 - 1665

Charles II

1665 - 1700

Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick III

1452 - 1493

Maximilian I

1493 - 1519

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Ferdinand I

1558 - 1564

Charles V abdicated in 1556 but Ferdinand was not elected until 1558. He was Spanish--the brother of Charles V, and thus the son of Juana and Philip. However, he did not become King of Spain; this title was given to Charles's son.

Maximillian II

1564 - 1576

Rudolph II

1576 - 1612

Matthias

1612 - 1619

Ferdinand II

1619 - 1637

Ferdinand III

1637 - 1657

Leopold I

1657 - 1705

Joseph I

1705 - 1711

Charles VI

1711 - 1740