education

knowledge in basic skills, academics, technical, discipline, and citizenship. And the process of becoming an educated person.

students

chalkboard, projectors, powerpoint,

Open class rooms

1661 - 1893

Description: Beginning with the first schools in the new world (what would become the U.S), schools were one building with one large room. The students would all sit in the same room as each other, and would often be taught but different teachers all in the same class time. Teachers would be in the same classroom, and would work together to teach the class. Often, especially in the colonial times, there would be some sort of higher authority in the class room at all times, whether it was a senior church official, a governor appointed watchdog, or some other third thing. The subject taught in the class were regulated by the community and the church, and the watchdog would report directly to the community on what was being taught in the schools, and what may need to change. Children of differing ages and grade were in the same room, so it became the watchdog’s job to coordinate the teaching.
Pro: teachers were forced to work together to effectively reach all the differing students, and the community was more involved with what was going on in the daily lessons. Also, student had closer ties with their teacher, as they often had the same teacher for years.
Con: the church was involved with the education for decades, and there was no separation of the education of religious matter and worldly matter like math and reading. One-classroom schools were cramped, and often did not have too many supplies, as it was up to the teachers to buy all of the supplies for the students.
Environmental Impact: since schools were small, they took up little land, and many local recourses were used to build the schools.
Economical Impact: used local money to support the teachers, and to buy the supplies, often, the teachers were some of the poorest In the community, as tjey were not paid much, and they used their pay to buy supplies.
Societal Impact: increased the colonial learning, and layed the foundations for modern school systems.
Political Impact: as the schools were ran by the community, they formed the basis for the education. Later, governments began to regulate what was tought in the classes, the earliest was in the late 1690’s, when the crown of England tried to enforce new laws in the colonies.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://library.thinkquest.org/J002606/1600s.html
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071105182237AAkCDmV

powerPoint

01/01/1987

Description: non-free commercial presentation program developed by Microsoft.
Pro: It’s a useful tool for lectures, many actions that allow for review games. Save a lot of time for people who otherwise would have used other types of visual aid

Con: some call it Evil because the amount of information in the presentation cuts stuff out and does not give enough detailed information.
Environmental Impact: it saves a lot of paper
Economical Impact: it makes lectures easier
Societal Impact: everybody uses it. It made the spread of ideas and designs, and spread sheets etc. easier
Political Impact: a lot of copyright infringement and a higher standard performance
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Tufte
http://e.wikipedia.org

Interactive classrooms

1991

Description: large touch sensitive white boards that use ultrasonic sensors to detect where a person is touching on the board. A projector is used to project the computer image onto the board, allowing teachers to manipulate the computers and the programs on them.
Pro: Gives students and teachers a way to use computer programs and interact with them on a larger scale. Movies, power points, notes can all be shown, and teachers have the ability to write secondary notes on the presentations while they are showing, and not have to redo the presentation.
Con: they can be difficult sometimes, as technology is not perfect, and can be difficult to use for the first couple of times. Lose out on the simplicity of just using a white board and a dry erase marker, and are useless if the power goes out.
Environmental Impact: you do not use markers on the board, reducing the airborne odor, and the number of the used ones in the land fills. The use of paper is reduced, as students can write on them, and do not have to
Economical Impact: generates money for the companies that produce them, as well as the suppliers that make the parts and the companies that install the. Green companies make money from the governments tax incentives to reduce landfill and boost forest regeneration incentives.
Societal Impact: makes it easier for teachers to involve their student and display lessons of the day to the students. Reduced paper use, but require higher costs to install and maintain them.
Political Impact: changes in the curriculum could result from the new ways of interaction with the material.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.prometheanworld.com/server.php?show=nav.21892
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactive_whiteboard

Student Response System

1992

Description: System in which students are able to enter an answer into an electronic device and give instant feedback to the instructor. These systems could be cell phone based, or utilize the schools wireless system, or even blue tooth. The devices that are used are shaped like older cellular phones, and are held in the palm of the hand. Some systems are simply A, B, C, or D, but others allow for full paragraphs to be entered.
Pro: Allows for more direct interaction between the students and the teachers, and the grading can be more direct and easier for the teacher. this also allows teachers to have a real time look into what students understand and what they need to go over again.
Con: Systems often malfunction, and some people may not know how to work them, and could enter the wrong answer by accident. Some forms do not allow for full answering, and could leave out critical points.
Environmental Impact: Less paper use. The low side is that when these devices are thrown out, they can damage the enviroment due to the chemicals used in the plastics.
Economical Impact: with students using less paper, and using one device to enter answers all year long, the school could spend less on paper, but the initial cost of investment is high for these systems.
Societal Impact: teachers have a direct link into what the students are learning during a lesson, and can make teaching more efficient by only spending the most time on the material that needs to be spent on.
Political Impact: More direct teaching allows for more direct methods of conveying ideas and information.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links):
http://www.turningtechnologies.com/studentresponsesystem/

parent

town meeting, parent portal, mobile phone(cellphones),

cell phones

01/04/1973

Description: allows calls in to the public switched telephone system over a radio link.
Pro: Can keep in touch with kids for any reason: change plans; ask them questions if a danger, children can reach authorities. And to know their were about.

Con: students often forget to turn them off. Distraction since texting is like passing notes. Spread rumors and cheating on exams
Environmental Impact: radiation is interfering with the bees and other pollinate insects navigation systems so that they can’t pollinate crops.
Economical Impact: all kids may not have phones or only have phones that have minutes on it.
Societal Impact: a lot of students use there phone for internet, and texting. Don’t get service in parts of the school.
Political Impact: a lot of students failing classes but high percentage passing.
Citations http://life.familyeducation.com/cellular-telephones/school/51264.html http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/are-mobile-phones-wiping-out-our-bees-444768.html

parent portal

09/01/2011

Description: gives the parent an opportunity to view your child/children attendance, grades, assignments, transcript and schedule.
Pro: you have access to your kid/children schedule, grades, assignments and things.
Con: if teachers aren’t updated or if something is wrong up there.
Environmental Impact: you don’t have to waste paper on progress reports that well never been seen.
Economical Impact: faster communication
Societal Impact: teachers and parents have a way of sharing grades in a faster and easier way.
Political Impact: with parents and the teachers now having a new way to communicate, and share grades, syudents could be grounded sooner.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://parentportal.mpls.k12.mn.us/

state

state Testing

State Testing

01/01/2000

Description: needs to be standardized have a standard set of instructions testing conditions time allowed and questions asked. A norm-referenced tests

Pro: Pushed schools into greater science and math requirements. To track achievements
Con: politicians look to the schools to be responsible for students learning. Teachers should be able to identify the problems but the teachers are often ignored because test are high staked.
Economical Impact: standard testing has become the means of accountability for students across the nation.
Societal Impact: Schools are holding the students accountable for their learning.
Political Impact: Administrators and teachers alike can have a better way of knowing where their students are, and states can adjust their require curriculum to reflect the testing scores.
Citations: http://www.essortment.com/history-standardized-testing-39931.html

faculty

land lines, google docs.,

land lines

01/01/1876

Description: communication will be easier and more efficient.
Pro: get in contact with parents when kids are skipping” missing to many days” in trouble (fighting) and when in pain or hurt
Con: parents not telling the school they change their number and parents cursing out the teachers.
Environmental Impact: cutting down trees to put in telephone poles and satellites.
Economical Impact: not everybody has a phone and the money to afford one. A call home can help make more graduate.
Societal Impact: a lot of teachers use this method to get in contact with parents.
Political Impact: helps get in contact with congress
Citations. Mr.Hotler and I(Jamila L. King)

PA Systems

1908

Description: sound waves are amplifies using electronic amplifiers or simple speaker systems.
Pro: large groups can now be spoken to at once, allowing many people to gather together and hear. The systems allowed School wide communication and the ability to talk to all students at the same time.
Con: systems are expensive, especially in more modern times when these systems are digitalized, and have added features such as equalizers and multiple connections to the network, some are even wireless.
Environmental Impact: no longer needed to gather in many locations, just one., but now gatherings can be larger, adding to the waste output and the total size of the area occupied. Some of the materials used for the systems are potentially harmful to the environment.
Economic Impact: increased gathering potential led to larger fairs and to more money brought in at such things as state fairs and conventions. Companies sprung up in order to be able to produce this system.
Societal Impact: larger groups of people could gather to communicate their feelings, adding to movements like Dr. kings.
Political Impact: presidential speeches could be given to ever larger audiences, and people could now communicate effectively with other people in buildings an other places of need.

Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.ehow.com/about_5403340_history-public-address-systems.html

Google Docs

01/01/2006

Description: Create, edit, upload and share your documents. Import your existing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations, or create new ones from scratch.
Pro- your documents, Spreadsheets and presentations are stored securely online. Access and edit from anywhere.
Con- Its A lot of negative feedback on this thing. Cannot select all files when you want to. Does not have that many options. Its not quick.
Environmental Impact: using this service allows students to put more of their presentations, papers, and other school topics online and transfer them directly to their teachers, saving paper and time.
Economical Impact: The less paper and ink that is use, the less money is used for these items. also, as more online storage space is needed, more IT people will be needed to update the networks.
Societal Impact: as more people are online, and more people are using these new services, it creates a demand for people who know how to operate these systems, and it creates a culture within a culture.
Political: companies are more connected to what people are working on, and they can now design products that fit these new works.
Citations. http://www.google.com/google-d-s/b1.html

community

school website,

Town meetings

01/01/1630

Description: group of individuals getting together to make decisions about the town and school.
Pro: town meeting fueled the spark that lead to the American Revolution.

Con: if failure to attend you were punished
Economical Impact: they did most of the trading there and discussed food productions.
Societal Impact: that’s when people came together and talked about the issues
Political Impact: everybody voices were heard by the legislature and Britain felt threatened by this because it tied the people together.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.nhlgc.org/publications/item_detail.asp?TCArticleID=49

School Website

1993

Description: any website designed and maintained for a school.
Pro- displaying students project, providing info on homework and dances and class work. Showing school courses, introducing people to the school through this website. Showing calendars of events.
Con- they don’t get updated regularly. Dates can be wrong up there.
Environmental Impact: reduced paper use and teacher, students and parents can look on there whenever they need instead of counting on a piece of paper.
Economical Impact: teacher, parents, and students can go up there whenever to found out dances, test, field trips, teacher’s email address and etc.
Societal Impact: a lot of kids and parents going on this to see what classes the school provides and to see what there getting into if they’re new to the school.
Citations. http://www.schulhomepage.de/school_website/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_website

government

no child left behind law,

Email

1985

Description: Wide spread computer networks distribute and store messages on network storage sites for the users to access them later. In some of the early systems, the sender and the recipient had to be online at the same time in order so send the message, almost like the instant messages of today. Some can consider the messages sent over the wires in the day of the telegraph, when Morris code was used to encode messages and decipher them on the other end of the electronic line. People could send messages across the country, and when the first electronic cables were laid across the Atlantic in 1906, they could be sent around the world.
Pro: messages could be sent instantly to other teachers, as well as the policy makers who decide what must be taught in the class room. These policy makers can also communicate directly with the teachers, to help them be better with the students.
Con: communication now relies on the networks of the schools and the nationwide networks for communication, and if these systems were to ever go down, communication would be halted. Also, it eliminates the face-to-face meeting of the years past.
Environmental Impact: Good for the environment in that the paper that would be used is no longer used, but a disaster for the environment in that if the various parts of the email network are not recycled, the materials will harm the landfill.
Economical Impact: better communication between the levels of education saves money by reducing accounting errors and ensuring that what is needed is ordered.
Societal Impact: all levels of the society can communicate with the education system.
Political Impact:changes in what is needed or what is going on can be told to all levels at the same time through mass email.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Email

No child Left Behind

01/02/2001

Description: Act of Congress concerning the education of children in public schools. Requires all government-run schools receiving federal funding to administer a state-wide standardized test annually to all students.
Pro: no kids are left behind. Students take the same test with the same conditions. The students’ scores determine whether the school has taught the students well.

Con: even when scores are poor actions aren’t being taken to improve the school. Schools get a bad name. if still bad scores the school will be closed down, school being made into a charter school, having a private company run it and state office of ed. Run the school directly.
Environmental Impact: Gives the option to students enrolled in failing schools to meet AYP.
Economical Impact: increased accountability. Gives the school districts opportunity tp demonstrate proficiency through a problem called “safe harbor”.(precursor) the act requires schools to rely on a based research for programs and teaching method.
Societal Impact: Approach widespread perceptions that public education results fall short of the expectations.
Political Impact: states develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades.
Citations http://www.ask.com/wiki/No_Child_Left_Behind_Act?qsrc=3044limitations

Profesional companies

Schools and teachers not only rely on each other to educate the next generation, but count upon the products that they get from companies and the services that they receive to educate, and create an open environment for growth.

Chalkboards

1793

Description: Large surface that you use to write and draw on with chalk, which can be a large surface painted black, or smaller surfaces made of wood or slate.

Pro: gave people and teachers the ability to write out loud, an at low cost.
Con: were expensive to buy, particularly in the 1800’s, when they had to be imported from Europe.
Environmental Impact: chalk made of sulfates, which is not good for wild life. Eliminates the need for the large use of paper.
Economical Impact: they were expensive at firs, but became common place in schools and in the financial world, especially in businesses for presentations.
Societal Impact: gave people everywhere the ability to draw their ideas and write out what they mean. Made it easier to teach, and portray to the world what their saying.
Political Impact: Communities could spend less on paper because of the savings from the boards.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalkboard
http://www.whoinventedit.net/who-invented-the-chalkboard.html

Customer Service

1874

Description: many companies have large customer service operations that are dedicated to help and support the school districts that they sell their products. From McGraw-Hill to the technology companies of apple and HP, companies give their clients many ways to communicate and give them feedback on their products, thir new education guidelines, and the products that they will lie in the future to better communicate with their students and the other teachers around them. Utilizing email, facebook, and other social media, these companies can track satisfaction of their products and make the changes necessary to make their products better.
Pro: companies can communicate with their clients to give them the materials, whether it be text books or more interactive technology, that they need in this modern day of ADHD to be successful.
Con: too much input can lead to a product change that can actually make the product detrimental to the needs of the students, and come to not help teachers at all.
Environmental Impact: more communication with these companies and the schools can lead to fewer wasted text books, at well as reducing the material needs by only giving the schools what they need.
Economical Impact: reduced waste in the form of uneeded orders and less printed material means less money spent by cash strapped school districts.
Societal Impact: education becomes better because the materials better reflect the education needs of the society.
Political Impact: companies can offer more to the government for less, and the government can communicate with the companies that supply the schools.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customer_service

Ipad

2007

Description: The iPad is a line of Tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc. Primarily as a platform for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, and web content.
Pro: gives students a revolutionary way to take notes, do assignments, view school related videos, and allows them to get more in-depth with the material with animated class notes and games. Reduces the paper needs and the need for schools to have existing computers.
Con: Students can abuse the technology, surfing the web instead of doing the class work or paying attention to the class work. Poses a major distraction to the teachers, as well as puts too much of the learning on technology, which would be impacted during blackouts and times of distress.
Environmental Impact: Almost no paper is needed in the classrooms anymore, as well as pencils and pens are no longer needed. Manufacturing would have to increase in order to be able to make enough to meet the demand. Potential landfill impacts as well as the pollution to the ground would be bad, so there would have to be some kind of recycling network created.

Economical Impact: sales for apple and other companies that produce competing devices surge as a result of the increased demand, and the suppliers of the materials for the products would see an increase in sales as well, which helped to create more jobs in 2011.
Societal Impact: reduced dependence on paper products, while increased dependence on the technologies. There are studies out that show that using computer devices reduce the attention span, but are more interactive than regular paper products, stimulating the mind.
Political Impact: curriculums in schools changed in certain areas due to the increades ability given to teachers by using the devices, as well as national and state testing is able to guage where students are quicker from digital testing.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.alligator.org/the_avenue/features/article_90fd1ec6-3fca-11e0-809e-001cc4c03286.html

http://www.apple.com/ipad/
http://www.hp.com/united-states/webos/us/en/tablet/touchpad-webos.html

Profesional organizations

Organizations allow groups of people to voice their opinion, make changes, and enforce the rules that have been layed in that area. Professional organizations allow teachers and students alike to voice what they need from the government, companies, and the teachers in the class rooms.

School Board Meetings

1872

Description: Meetings at the district level of the education system where elected officials on the school board make decisions using the publics input on variouse topics, such as the budget, any cuts to the budget, new programs, and events that are to be held within the community. These meeting may also be closed to the public, where the board may discuss legal issues, certain personal issues, and bargaining issues.
Pro: the public can have a say on the policy of the school board, and can propose new events and programs for the students and the community.
Con: public reaction to economic issues or to social issues can reflect on new policy, and when school systems open their doors to the public, new restrictions can form based on these new fears and events.
Environmental Impact: New programs that aid the environment can be formed quicker if the public is in support, and new regulations for the schools can be outfitted if the public sees it fit.
Economical Impact: Budget cuts can be easier if the public is telling the school districts what they are willing to see be cut, and what they are willing to pay for them self’s.
Societal Impact: better communication within the community leads to better education and better standards that are more realistic.
Political Impact: education policy is directly affected by the public.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/lausd/board/secretary/html/umbflyer/umb1.html

Profesional Developement

1884

Description: Where teachers take the time to further their ability to educate effectively and learn new ways of interacting with their students. Teachers can do this by attending professional colleges that specialize in furthering teacher education, attending conferences that show new methods, and by talking with teacher in school meetings and training.
Pro: Teachers know how to use new things in the class room, and are not as clueless when it come to technology. They can be up to date on new teaching methods and new standards.
Con: Can come at the monetary cost of the teacher, and can be expensive for school districts if more and more teachers are having to go.
Environmental Impact: Teachers are having to travel more, using gasoline. Teachers, however, can rely less on printed out notes and on textbooks.
Economical Impact: Conferences and attending a community college cost money, either from the teacher pr the school district.
Societal Impact: Teachers are more educated on up to date topics and are more effectively communicating with the students and parents.
Political Impact: changes in the standards of learning are easier to make because teachers are more flexible and willing to learn.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.aera.net/uploadedFiles/Journals_and_Publications/Research_Points/RPSummer05.pdf
http://www.sde.com/

National

Communicating on a national scale, not only with the government, but with other teachers across state lines helps teachers to better plan for the road ahead, and organize to create new guidelines and ensure students across the country are succeeding.

Teacher Unions

1856

Description: Groups of teachers that have unionized them selves in an effort to not only fight for their own rights to teach and make a reasonable living, but to fight for the many students that they teach and the diverse backgrounds that they come from.
Pro: Teachers can stand up for them selves not as individual, but as one collective group. Students can be represented and have their education furthered by good teachers.
Con: Because of these unions, it is nearly impossible to fire teachers, no how bad a teacher is. Also, Teachers are paid not by the quality of their work, but for just showing up. Teachers are paid even if they aren’t officially teaching in the schools, placed in these reserve pools.
Environmental Impact:the conventions them selves impact the local environment by producing more trash and more waste. Long term, they make communication better.
Economical Impact: A massive drain on the school districts that have to pay failing teachers for work that is only weighing down the test scores. With budgets tightening, districts are cutting costs, but because they cant fire teachers, they are cutting programs, like athletics.
Societal Impact: If these failing teachers are still in circulation, then the students that they teach are also failing students, weighing on our national education level.
Political Impact: education reform is black listed because of the gridlock with the teachers unions. If teachers aren’t performing, then any reforms that make it through wont have any impact on the students.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://teachersunionexposed.com/bargaining.cfm