Police Officer

Police officers are generally charged with the apprehension of criminals and the prevention and detection of crime, and the maintenance of public order.

Radios

the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency,

One-way police communication radio

1/1/1928

a dedicated Detroit patrolman and an electronics buff devised the first successful one-way radio link between police headquarters and cruisers. Critical news of crimes in progress could now be transmitted from the station-house to police cars as they drove.

Pro: crimes in progress could now be transmitted from the stationhouse to police cars as they drove.


Con: can only talk one-way
Environmental Impact: can heat up tissue

Political Impact: helped prevent crime by making it easier to report a crime between station and police
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.spacetoday.org/History/RadioHistory.html
http://www.motorola.com/statcfiles/Consumers/Corporate/
http://www.stuk.fi/julkaisut_maaraykset/fi_FI/katsaukset/_files/81811016...
http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:One-Way_Police_Radio_Co...

two-way radio

1933

In March 1933, the first two-way AM mobile radio was installed in a patrol car of the Bayonne Police Department. The system was designed by Lieutenant Vincent J. Doyle of the Bayonne Police and radio engineer Frank Gunther. Through the use of a combined transmitter and receiver in the patrol car, the two-way system allowed communication between patrol cars and with the police station.

Pro: was a way to communicate

Con: early ones were very large

Environmental Impact: can heat up tissue and burn you
Political Impact: helped prevent crime by making it easier to report a crime between station and police
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.spacetoday.org/History/RadioHistory.html
http://www.motorola.com/statcfiles/Consumers/Corporate/
http://www.stuk.fi/julkaisut_maaraykset/fi_FI/katsaukset/_files/81811016... 
http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:Two-Way_Police_Radio_Co... 
http://www.articleleague.com/Art/20601/6/The-Pros-And-Cons-Of-Two-Way-Ra... 


police cruiser radio receiver

1936

Fm police radio

1940

In 1939, Edward J. Hickey, Commissioner of the Connecticut State Police, asked Daniel Noble, a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Connecticut, to design a mobile-radio system for the State Police. A one-way system was suggested, but Noble, who had designed two-way AM units and FM broadcast stations, recommended a two-way, FM system. Receiving the go-ahead from Hickey, Noble drew up a circuit design and specifications, from which a practical unit was built by Fred Budelman, chief engineer of the Fred M. Link Company. Noble later said that the success of the system was due to choosing phase modulation, selecting proper station sites, using rooftop antennas on the cars, and employing different transmitting frequencies for the base stations and mobile units. The system began operations at Hartford in 1940, signaling the nationwide switch from AM to FM.

Pro: was a way to communicate

Con: early ones were very large


Political Impact: marked the nation wide switch from AM to FM

Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.spacetoday.org/History/RadioHistory.html
http://www.motorola.com/statcfiles/Consumers/Corporate/
http://www.stuk.fi/julkaisut_maaraykset/fi_FI/katsaukset/_files/81811016... 
http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:Two-Way_Police_Radio_Co... 

http://www.articleleague.com/Art/20601/6/The-Pros-And-Cons-Of-Two-Way-Ra... 
http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:FM_Police_Radio_Communi...

Megaphone

he transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency,

Horn Speakers, Microphones, and Amplifiers

1934

Description:The horns, speakers, and amplifiers are started to be used widely by police

Pro:You can call to suspects without getting out of your car
Con: Miscommunication
Environmental Impact:Noise pollution
Economical Impact:Sound Pollution
Societal Impact: Annoy citizens
Political Impact:Use to get your message out
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.toa.jp/profile/history.html#1950s

Electric Microphone

1954

Description:Used to convert sound in to electrical signals
Pro: The police can better get the attention or pull over a car

Con: Miscommunication
Environmental Impact: Noise pollution
Societal Impact:Annoy the community
Political Impact: Your voice can now be heard across a wide area
Citations (Copy and Paste Links):http://www.toa.jp/profile/history.html#1950s

Motorcycle PA System

1961

Description:2-way communication between police motorcycles allowing faster communication between them.

Pro: allows faster communication between motorcycles
Environmental Impact: Radio waves stunt tree growth and kill bees
Societal Impact:Police are more efficient and can catch criminals easier makeing people more law abiding
Political Impact: People are aware that police can communicate instantly and they follow the rules because of this.
Citations (Copy and Paste Links):http://www.toa.jp/profile/history.html#1950s

Emergency Warning System

1969

Description:The Emergency Alert System, or EAS, is the fastest and most effective way to warn the public of an emergency.
Pro:Public is now aware of emergencies effecting a wide area
Con: Can cause panic
Environmental Impact: Noise pollution

Societal Impact: Society is now warned quickly when a natural disaster is about to occur.

Citations (Copy and Paste Links):http://www.toa.jp/profile/history.html#1950s

Camera

a device for recording visual images in the form of photographs, movie film, or video signals.

Surveillance equipment

1969

Description: The use of police surveillance equipment began in New York City in 1969. Police cameras were installed to protect New York City’s Municipal Building near City Hall.

 Pro: Protects police and the public. 

Con: Footage can easily be erased from database through hacking or tape can be stolen or destroyed. 


Economical Impact: Sell very well. price depends on how well the camera is made.

Societal Impact: Some people like it for protection, yet others feel like their a prison such as the students at the University of Hull in the UK.

Political Impact: Used for only for surveillance and police/guard work.



Citations

Advantages of Police Car Cameras | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_5824601_advantages-police-car-cameras.html#ixzz...
The History of Police Surveillance Equipment | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5311630_history-police-surveillance-equipment....
http://www2.hull.ac.uk/news_and_events-1/news_archive/2010_news_archive/...

Videocassette Camera Recorders

1970 - 1992

Description: When videocassette recorders first hit the market in 1970, the police discovered they could use the videocassettes to preserve evidence gathered from the use of surveillance equipment. 


Pro: Allows you to playback collected information. 


Con: If you run out of tape or battery power, you can’t record anymore

 


Economical Impact: Sold well and very expensive for the police, but helps keep everybody safe. 


Societal Impact: People are now able to share videos with each other.


Political Impact: It became widely used by people after invention.


Citations
eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_5824601_advantages-police-car-cameras.html#ixzz...
The History of Police Surveillance Equipment | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5311630_history-police-surveillance-equipment....

Dashboard Camera

1980

Description: Police cars start using dashboard cams but they are not common until the early 90s. 

Pro: Protects police and the public from false claims.
 

Economical Impact: Expensive, but good for protection.

 Societal Impact: People watch out for what they do to keep from having extra charges added and police also watch what they do and make sure they do the right thing.
Citations
eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_5824601_advantages-police-car-cameras.html#ixzz...
The History of Police Surveillance Equipment | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5311630_history-police-surveillance-equipment....

Charged Coupling Device Camera

1990

Description: The police began to use the Charged Coupling Device camera. This device made it possible to record in low light and at night.

Pro: Allowed you to see at night or in the dark. 

Con: Sensitive to bright lights and is blinding.


Economical Impact: Expensive, but very useful.



Citations
Advantages of Police Car Cameras | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_5824601_advantages-police-car-cameras.html#ixzz...
The History of Police Surveillance Equipment | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5311630_history-police-surveillance-equipment....

GPS

Global Positioning System, an accurate worldwide navigational and surveying facility based on the reception of signals from an array of orbiting satellites.

Transit GPS System

1964

Description: Transit provided continuous navigation satellite service from 1964, initially for Polaris submarines and later for civilian use as well.

Pro: Google maps, easier to use than paper map

Con: Possibility of being tracked

Economical Impact: government funding


Political Impact: government funding

Citations (Copy and Paste Links):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transit_(satellite)

Cell Phone GPS

2009

Description:the GPS can pinpoint a location and track anything needed
Pro:lost person can be traced
Con: government tracking
Societal Impact: a lost person can be found
Political Impact: government money cost
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.aero.org/education/primers/gps/gpstimeline.html

Telegraph

a system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, esp. one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection

Telegraph

1924

Description: Monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, and comparing them to your heart rate when telling the truth police can determine weather you are lying or telling the truth. 

Pro: Can tell if someone is lying or not

Con: Can be beat

Political Impact:Courts can use a polygraph to determine weather a persons statement is false or not.

Citations (Copy and Paste Links:
http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventions/a/forensic_2.htm


Polygraph

a lie detector.

Polygraph

1924

Description: Monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, and comparing them to your heart rate when telling the truth police can determine weather you are lying or telling the truth. 

Pro: Can tell if someone is lying or not

Con: Can be beat

Political Impact:Courts can use a polygraph to determine weather a persons statement is false or not.

Citations (Copy and Paste Links:
http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventions/a/forensic_2.htm


computers

an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program.

computer assisted dispatch

1960

Description: can be used to send and store messages. 
Pro: easier on people. 
Con: mistakes may happen

Economical Impact: cost money 
Societal Impact: Crimes are easier to report for citizens 
Political Impact:
Citations
http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventions/a/forensic_5.html

The National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System

1966

Description: The National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System, a message-switching facility linking all state police computers except Hawaii. 
Pro: Police in different states can co-operate to catch criminals on the run 

Environmental Impact: Wires put up to communicate can damage the environment 
Economical Impact:

Political Impact: Criminals now have less of a chance of getting away with their crimes by moving to a different state

Citations
http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventions/a/forensic_5.html

Use in sophisticated computer programs to map and analyze crime patterns.


1990

Description: sophisticated computer programs to map and analyze crime patterns. Better allowing police to charge criminals with all the crimes he/she committed. 
Pro: Criminals can be locked up, and you may be able to predict where a crime will take place. 


Citations
http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventions/a/forensic_5.html

Dispatch

the sending of someone or something to a destination or for a purpose

Wireless Radio Transmission

1895

Description:a wireless transmission easier to give and get communication to officers.
Pro: easier transmission given off.

Economical Impact: no wires used.
Societal Impact: give and get transmissions.
Citations: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/marconi-sends-first-atlantic-wireless-transmission

911 service

02/09/1968

Description:give details on how to make a 911 call
Pro:contacting the police quicker
Societal Impact:can get the police faster
Political Impact:way to drop crime rate
Citations (Copy and Paste Links):http://www.911dispatch.com/911/history/index.html

First 911 call

02/16/1968

Description: the first-ever 911 call is placed by Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite from Haleyville City Hall to U.S. Rep. Tom Bevill (Dem.) at the city's police station. Bevill reportedly answered the phone with "Hello.”. Pro: Communicate with police; Economical Impact:can get help faster; Societal Impact:police can get your emergency; Political Impact:crime rate drops.
Citations
http://www.911dispatch.com/911/history/index.html

Tape Recorder

an apparatus for recording sounds on magnetic tape and later reproducing them.

Phonograph

1887

Thomas Alva Edison, working in his lab, succeeds in recovering Mary's Little Lamb from a strip of tinfoil wrapped around a spinning cylinder. He demonstrates his invention in the offices of Scientific American, and the phonograph is born

Pro: can accurately record spoken information

Con: only records noise

Societal Impact: was the start of recorded music

Political Impact: eventually courts began to record their sessions
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/audio.history.timeline.html

Tape Recorder

1947

records voices for evidence or take voices
Pro:used for evidence
Con: Not portable
Societal Impact: first on the market allowed police to tape interrogations for later reference

Pt-6

1948

Magnecord introduces its PT-6, the first tape recorder in portable cases

Pro: portable

Con: only records noise

Political Impact: eventually courts began to record their sessions

Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/audio.history.timeline.html

Media

main means of mass communication

America Most Wanted List

1950

Description:a List of the most wanted criminal in the U.S.
Pro:know the fugitives
Con:not granted to find the fugitives
Environmental Impact:keeps crime off the street
Economical Impact:keeps people safe
Societal Impact:less crime
Political Impact:safe working environment
Citations (Copy and Paste Links): http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/topten/ten-most-wanted-fugitives-faq/ten-most-wanted-fugitives-faq#3