Wind Lit. 2

Historical Context

Holst meets Vaughn Williams


*Holst and Vaughn Williams were both interested in folk music/ They were friends until Holst's death in 1934.

Holst writes "Quintet in a minor" Op. 3


*For piano, oboe, clar, bsn, and horn

Grainger begins his "expirmental stage"


*Worked with "beatless music"-was suggested to him by the sea/ Thought the future of music was to be rhythmless and music that had a hardly-moving gliss effect/ Believed that melodic lines could have their own rhythm, key, harmony- free intervals, no concord, discord/ Wanted sustained tones to be the basis of rhythm.

Holst Contemporaries

1900 - 1930

Contemporaries of Holst- Parry, Butterworth, Jacob

Important American Composers

1900 - 2000

*Robert Russell Bennet- "Symphonic Songs for Band"/ Julian Work- "Autumn Walk"/ Clifton WIlliams- "Fanfare and Allegro", "Dedicatory Overture"/ Virgil Tompson/ Roy Harris/ Howard Hansen- neo- Romantic, director of Eastman School of Music, "Chorale and Alleluja", "Centennial March"/ John Knowles Payne/ John Carpenter/ Walter Piston/ William Grant Still.

Holst writes "Quintet in Ab"


*For fl, oboe, clar, bsn, horn.

Holst becomes director of St. Paul Girl's School


Holst writes "Summer Set Rhapsody"


*extensive use of folk songs

1st Suite in Eb was made into a condensed score


Vaughn Williams writes "Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis"


Holst writes 2nd Suite in F


*Uses lots of folk melodies/ In 5 movements/ Later the "Dargeson" melody was re-written for the St. Paul Suite (for orchestra)

Holst writes "Hymn of Jesus"


Holst considered this his best piece of music.

Messiaen's First Period

1917 - 1946

Vaughn Williams writes "Folksong Suite"


*Uses many folk songs including- Seventeen come Sunday, Pretty Caroline, Dives of Lazarus, My Bonny Boy, Green Bushes, Blow away the Morning Dew, and John Barleycorn

Milhaud writes "La Creation du Monde"


*Ballet and 6 continuous dance movements/ Premiered by the Goldman band

Vaughn Williams writes "Sea Songs"


*Military folk songs.
1. Admiral Bimbow
2. Portsmouth
3. Princess Royal

Vaughn Williams writes "Tocatta Marciale"


*For military band/ parts of this piece appear in his Symphony No.4/ First performance by Royal Military School

Holst writes "Hammersmith"


*Lots of counterpoint/fugal material because Holst was very interested in Bach counterpoint.

Messiaen's Style

1930 - 1950

*avoided regular beats/ pallindromes in rhythm/ Hindu music/ complex, vertical sound aggregates- stained glass effect, overtones and siren/ Interested in bird calls and natural sounds- symbol of freedom and perfection in nature/ Distinctive use of percussion/ Religion/ Mode de valours and Intensities- every tone in the chromatic scale was always connected to duration, rhythm, etc. (pre-dated complete serialism.)

Hindemith writes "Symphonic Metamorphasis"


*Based on works by C.M. von Weber/ arr. Keith Wilson- at Yale when Hindemith was.

Messiaen's 2nd period

1946 - 1963

uses bird songs

Persichetti writes "Divertimento for Band"


*premiered by Goldman band

Messiaen's 3rd Period

1964 - 1992

Schuman wrote " Masquerade for Band"


Collin Matthews version of Suite in Eb


*Took 1948 version of this piece and revised it (Boosey and Hawkes)

Holst (1874-1934)

*Born in England/ He was a 4th generation musician/ Trombone player/ Influenced by Berlioz's "Treatise on Instrumentation"/ Went to Royal College of Music- took lessons from Stanford/ Lecturer at Harvard/ Became interested in HIndu/ Learned sanskrit/ Wrote 8 operas, 4 ballets, 67 short choral works, 2 hymns, and 40 solo songs/ Received most acclaim from "Planets"

Suite in Eb for Military Band, Op. 28, No. 1

  1. Chaconne- 15 repititions of the theme + coda
  2. Intermezzo
  3. March- a bit slower than an American march

Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958)

*Grew up wealthy/ wrote 1st piece at age 6 called "Robbin's Nest"/age 18- decided on music as a career/ Went to Royal College of Music and Cambridge/ Influenced by Stanford/ 1903- Heard a shepherd sing and was vastly influenced/ 1908- Studied with Ravel.

Percy Grainger (1882-1961)

*Born in Australia/ Mother was a singer and taught him piano/ Studied at Hoch Concervatory in Frankfort when he was 13/ Delias and Grieg were friends of his/ 1914- came to US/ Made many pieces with several different instrumentation options/ Experimented with sound and free music (free music machines)/ Transcribers- Mark Rogers, Larry Daehn, Frederick Fennell, Jospeh Kreines.

Shepherds Hey!


Lincolnshire Posy


I. Libson- set agaist motive in the horns.
II. Horkstow Grange- not performed at the premiere
III. Rufford Park Poachers-wrote 2 options for different instrumentation
IV. Brisk Young Sailor-straight through the folk song
V. Lord Melbourne-war song
VI. Lost Lady Found

*Written for Bandmasters Assoc./ Based on wax recordings from a trip to the English countryside he took in 1905/6/ Tried to reflect these recordings very closely in his music/ Called this piece a 'collection of musical wildflowers'.

Darius Milhaud (1892-1974)

*Inflenced by jazz, polytonaity/ Studied at Paris Conservatory/ 1928- heard jazz in Harlem/ wrote a number of operas, ballets, and theatre music/ Taught Reich, Glass, Xenochus, Bachrach, and Brubeck/ He was the French Brazillian ambassador/ Wrote "Bull on the Roof".

Suite Francaise

  1. Normandie
  2. Bretagne
  3. Ile de France
  4. Alsace-Lorraine
  5. Provence *Homage to high school bands/ depicts 5 different regions of France/ uses French folk songs/ too hard for high schhols at the time/ has been transcribed for orchestra.

Serge Prokofiev (1891-1953)

*wrote famous works Peter and the Wolf, Love for 3 Oranges, and Lt. Kieje/ He subtly showed political unrest through his music.

March in Bb, Op. 69, No. 1


*written for pre-Russian sports fest

March in Bb, Op. 99


*written for the Soviet Defense Military

Paul Hindemith (1895-1963)

*Played violin, viola/ Came to US in the 30's/ Had a complicated relationship with the Nazis/ 1940- Taught at Yale and SUNC/ Taught Foss and Dello Joio/ 1946- became a US citizen/ Gebrauschmusik- music for use/music for the people (amateaurs to play at home)- concept inspired by Brecht/ wrote sonatas for each instrument.

Konzertmusik fur Blasorchester, Op. 41

  1. Konzertante Overture
  2. SechsVariationenuber das Lied: “Prince Eugen, der Edle Ritter”
  3. Marsch *for Donaueschingen Festival- started in 1921/ Oldest contemporary music festival in the world

Konzertmusik for Piano, Brass, and Two Harps, Op. 49

1929 - 1930
  1. RuhiggehendeViertel-Lebhaft
  2. Sehrruhig, Variationen
  3. Massigschnell, kraftvoll
  4. for piano, brass, harp, and perc.

Geschwindmarsch from Sinfonia Serena


*1 mvt. of the larger work for winds/ Based on the Beethoven "March in F"/ Commissioned by Dallas Symhony Orchestra

Symphony for Band in Bb

  1. Moderato, molto agitato- S/A form
  2. Andantino grazioso- slow/fast fugue movement
  3. Fugue- double fugue- final recap brings back 1st theme from 1st mvt.

Leonard Bernstein (1918-1981)

*Combined classical music and jazz/ great educator- did "young people's concerts" and "norton lectures" at Harvard about all different facets of music/ Jewish-American/ Got fame because he filled in for Kusavitsky once.

Prelude, Fugue, and Riffs


*Prelude- brass+rhythm, Fugue-sax, Riff-ensemble+clarinet/ for Woody Herman's big band/ premiered by Benny Goodman.

Samuel Barber (1910-1981)

*was an American composer of orchestral, opera, choral, and piano music/ His Adagio for Strings is his most popular composition/ Wrote his first opera at age 10/ When he was 14, he entered the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, where he studied piano, composition, and voice.

Commando March


*wrote this after being enlisted into the US military in WWII, "Old fashioned quick-step with a crew cut"

William Schuman (1910-1992)

Schuman played the violin and banjo as a child/ From 1933 to 1938 he studied privately with Roy Harris at Columbia/ In 1943 he won the inaugural Pulitzer Prize for Music for his cantata, A Free Song, adapted from poems by Walt Whitman/ Taught at Sarah Lawrence college/ 1945- became president of Juliard music school.

George Washington Bridge


Vincent Persichetti (1915-1987)

*considered neo-classical/ very prolific- wrote a lot of choral music/ Born in Philly/ studied piano, organ, comp, and theory/ age 16- church organist/ 1935- Combs Collge of Music/ age 20- department chair of theory/comp there/ 1941- head of theory/comp at Philly Conservatory/ 1947- Taught at Juliard, 1963- head of dept. at Juliard/ composed for all mediums.

Symphony for Band (No. 6)

  1. Adagio-Allegro
  2. Adagio sostenuto
  3. Allegretto
  4. Vivace *use of percussion is elevated for this time.

H. Owen Reed (1910--)

*Taught at Michigan State from 1935-1976/ Focused on native musics of N. America.

La Fiesta Mexicana


I. Prelude and Aztec Dance
II. Mass
III. Carnival

Ingolf Dahl (1912-1970)

*Swedish-German/ Immigrated to US in 1943/ Studied with Nadia Boulanger/ Born In Hamburg.

Concerto for Alto Sax and Wind Orchestra

1949 - 1953

I. Recitative
II. Adagio (Passacaglia)
III. Rondo alla Marcia: Allegro Brioso



I. Introduction and Rondo
II. Pastoral Nocturne
III. Dance Variations
*Have some 12 tone elements/ Used 12-tone row loosely- used two 6 note motives that are based in tonality/ Overall form is an arch form.

Aaron Copland (1900-1990)

*American classical composer, composition teacher, writer, and later in his career a conductor of his own and other American music/ Aaron Copland was born in Brooklyn of Lithuanian Jewish descent/ Copland took formal lessons in harmony, theory, and composition from Rubin Goldmark/ Studied with Nadia Boulanger/ Incorporated "American" themes and jazz into his music.


  • "Emblems" is generally regarded Copland's only piece written for band as the result of Keith Wilson and the CBDNA in 1964/ an 11-minute, one-movement work is a sampler of Copland's varied output: simple triadic passages, polytonality, folk melodies, dissonance, waltzes, polymeters, and elements of jazz all appear.

Oliver Messiaen (1908-1992)

  • studied organ and comp. at Paris Conservatory/ Students- Stockholm, Boulez/ Messiaen tried to create a complete experience, religious context, new way of thinking about music and life/ Wrote "Quartet for the End of Time"- violin, clarinet, cello, piano- from German military camp/ Used 8 toes per octave- octatonic scale/ Used rhythmic pedals similiar to talea and color/ Had Chromasthesia- saw pitch as color (Scriabin also had this.)

Oiseaux Exotiques

1955 - 1956

*for chamber winds + piano/perc.

Couleurs de la Cite Celeste


*Brings all parts of his style together- Biblical quotes/ clarinet- bird call.

Et Expecto Ressirectionem Mortourem


*Based on 5 quotes from the book of Revelations/ for huge band/ commissioned by French govt./ Premiered in Notre Dame/ for outdoor performance on the top of a mountain/ the relationship of time and space is different than other composers/ Symbolism-7 tpts-7 angels/ Last mvt- describes the ascension/ 25 minutes long.