Carthaginian Empire

Milestones

Foundation of Carthage (city)

825 BC

Approximate date; legend has the foundation coinciding with the arrival of Princess Elissa and her fellow refugees from Tyre. The city was originally a Tyrian colony.

Fall of Tyre/Rise of Empire

575 BC

Creation of Carthaginian Empire; Tyre sacked by Babylonian King Nebachadnezor which causes the Phoenician trade center to shift to Carthage.

Sack of Carthage, Fall of the Empire

146 BC

The Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio was sent to destroy the city by Roman senators who were afraid it would rise to its old strength and challenge them again. Carthage was utterly demolished, and the empire fell.

Exploration

First Circumnavigation of Africa

605 BC

The Egyptian king Necho sponsored a Carthaginian crew's circumnavigation of Africa in order to defend themselves against their common enemy, Babylon.

Himilco the Navigator navigates

600 BC - 501 BC

Himilco was the first known Mediterranean explorer ever to reach northern Europe. Nothing is known about Himilco himself, but he is thought to have lived in the 6th century BC.

Hanno explores African coast

600 BC - 550 BC

Hanno sailed along the coast of Africa and established several colonies in the 1st half of the 6th century BC. Exact dates are unknown.

Military

Perennial Wars with the Greeks

650 BC - 300 BC

Carthage clashes with the Greeks on and off during this time in Sicily. Exact dates are largely unknown.

Battle of Himera

480 BC

Hamilcar leads the Carthaginians against the Greeks, under the tyrant Theron, in Sicily.

War with Greeks in Sicily

410 BC - 405 BC

Carthage came to the aid of the city Segesta, which was at war with the Greek city Selinus. Selinus had the support of Syracuse, so Segesta appealed to Carthage for help. Under the Carthaginian commander Hannibal, son of Gesco and grandson of Hamiclar, Carthage was able to conquer the Sicilian cities of Selinus, Himera, Acragas, and Gela.

Peace Treaty with Greeks

405 BC

Dionysus of Syracuse and the Carthaginian commander Himilco sign a peace treaty after Hannibal conquers most of Sicily and returns to Carthage.

Occupation of Messana

265 BC

The Syracusian tyrant Hiero attacked the city Messana. The people of Messana ask Carthage for help, so Carthage sent Hannibal to occupy the city.

First Punic War

264 BC - 241 BC

War with Rome officially started when the Romans invaded Sicily and liberated Messana, who had changed their minds about Carthage's occupation.

Siege of Acragas

262 BC

Romans besiege the city of Acragas, defended by Hannibal. Hannibal asks Carthage for reinforcements.

Mylae

260 BC

Roman consul Gaius Duillius defeats Hannibal in Rome's first ever naval victory.

Hamiclar Barca besieges the besiegers

246 BC - 242 BC

Hamiclar Barca was sent to Sicily to defend Carthaginian strongholds against the Romans. He is successful until his supplies run low. When Hanno's attempt to supply his troops by sea fails, they are forced to surrender.

Hanno's naval defeat

241 BC

Carthage sent Hanno to help Hamiclar Barca's army in Sicily. The Roman navy defeated him, sinking 50 Carthaginian ships, and Carthage was forced to surrender.

Gesco's Peace Treaty

241 BC

Carthage sent Gesco to negotiate peace with the Romans after Hanno's naval defeat.

Hannibal Barca crosses mountains

218 BC

Hannibal leads his troops across the Pyrenees and the Alps to provoke war with Rome.

Second Punic War

218 BC - 201 BC

Hannibal Barca invades Italy and provokes war with Rome. He defeats the Romans in several battles but is eventually defeated. A treaty is signed in 201 BC.

Battle of Cannae

216 BC

Important second defeat of the Romans; caused many Roman allies to switch sides.

Battle of Zama/Peace Treaty with Rome

202 BC - 201 BC

Hannibal was defeated by Scipio at the Battle of Zama in Africa. This decisive battle on their home soil was Carthage's last stand in the Second Punic War, and the defeat forced Carthage into a harsh Peace treaty with Rome.

Third Punic War

149 BC - 146 BC

Rome declared war, which Carthage tried to avoid by treaty. Rome demanded that the Carthaginians stand aside and let them destroy the city of Carthage, which the Carthaginians were unwilling to do. The Carthaginians returned to Carthage to defend their city, and the Third Punic War began.

Siege of Hippagreta

148 BC

Piso sieged Hippagreta, but was unsuccessful. The Roman senate soon replaced him with Scipio.

Scipio's Intervention

147 BC - 146 BC

Scipio finally brought Rome success. He successfully captured most of Carthage's cities and eventually the capitol itself, where the Roman senate ordered him to completely demolish the city.