Approximate date; legend has the foundation coinciding with the arrival of Princess Elissa and her fellow refugees from Tyre. The city was originally a Tyrian colony.
Creation of Carthaginian Empire; Tyre sacked by Babylonian King Nebachadnezor which causes the Phoenician trade center to shift to Carthage.
The Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio was sent to destroy the city by Roman senators who were afraid it would rise to its old strength and challenge them again. Carthage was utterly demolished, and the empire fell.
The Egyptian king Necho sponsored a Carthaginian crew's circumnavigation of Africa in order to defend themselves against their common enemy, Babylon.
Himilco was the first known Mediterranean explorer ever to reach northern Europe. Nothing is known about Himilco himself, but he is thought to have lived in the 6th century BC.
Hanno sailed along the coast of Africa and established several colonies in the 1st half of the 6th century BC. Exact dates are unknown.
Carthage clashes with the Greeks on and off during this time in Sicily. Exact dates are largely unknown.
Hamilcar leads the Carthaginians against the Greeks, under the tyrant Theron, in Sicily.
Carthage came to the aid of the city Segesta, which was at war with the Greek city Selinus. Selinus had the support of Syracuse, so Segesta appealed to Carthage for help. Under the Carthaginian commander Hannibal, son of Gesco and grandson of Hamiclar, Carthage was able to conquer the Sicilian cities of Selinus, Himera, Acragas, and Gela.
Dionysus of Syracuse and the Carthaginian commander Himilco sign a peace treaty after Hannibal conquers most of Sicily and returns to Carthage.
The Syracusian tyrant Hiero attacked the city Messana. The people of Messana ask Carthage for help, so Carthage sent Hannibal to occupy the city.
War with Rome officially started when the Romans invaded Sicily and liberated Messana, who had changed their minds about Carthage's occupation.
Romans besiege the city of Acragas, defended by Hannibal. Hannibal asks Carthage for reinforcements.
Roman consul Gaius Duillius defeats Hannibal in Rome's first ever naval victory.
Hamiclar Barca was sent to Sicily to defend Carthaginian strongholds against the Romans. He is successful until his supplies run low. When Hanno's attempt to supply his troops by sea fails, they are forced to surrender.
Carthage sent Hanno to help Hamiclar Barca's army in Sicily. The Roman navy defeated him, sinking 50 Carthaginian ships, and Carthage was forced to surrender.
Carthage sent Gesco to negotiate peace with the Romans after Hanno's naval defeat.
Hannibal leads his troops across the Pyrenees and the Alps to provoke war with Rome.
Hannibal Barca invades Italy and provokes war with Rome. He defeats the Romans in several battles but is eventually defeated. A treaty is signed in 201 BC.
Important second defeat of the Romans; caused many Roman allies to switch sides.
Hannibal was defeated by Scipio at the Battle of Zama in Africa. This decisive battle on their home soil was Carthage's last stand in the Second Punic War, and the defeat forced Carthage into a harsh Peace treaty with Rome.
Rome declared war, which Carthage tried to avoid by treaty. Rome demanded that the Carthaginians stand aside and let them destroy the city of Carthage, which the Carthaginians were unwilling to do. The Carthaginians returned to Carthage to defend their city, and the Third Punic War began.
Piso sieged Hippagreta, but was unsuccessful. The Roman senate soon replaced him with Scipio.
Scipio finally brought Rome success. He successfully captured most of Carthage's cities and eventually the capitol itself, where the Roman senate ordered him to completely demolish the city.