Texas History

Main

First texans

Approx. 3000 BC

Amerinds inhabited this area. Hunters and gatherers. Were constantly in war. Culturally varied, spoke different languages and were nomadic.

Neo-American Age

Approx. 1000 BC

People became more sedentary, used agriculture. Referred to as Mountain Builders because burial and temple mound they had built in the Piney Woods of East Texas.

Neo-American Age

American indians in Texas

Plains Indians (Apaches and Comanches)

Approx. 1000 BC

Inhabited the high Plains of central TX. Hunters of buffalo, bison, elk, deer and antelope. Comanches were nomadic tribes who dominated most of the commerce of the Plains. Apaches and Comanches were eternal enemies because the Comanches arrived later.

Pueblo and Jumano

1000 BC

Lived in West Texas. The Jumanos were traders. They traded with the Caddos and the Mississipians. Trade area covered a large part of the TX panhandle and central TX.

Coahuiltecans

Approx. 1000 BC

Inhabited the area of San Antonio to Del Rio. One of the harshest territories in the state. They lived on native plants, and insects and reptiles.

Caddos

Approx. 1000 BC

Largest and most powerful group in Texas. Located in East Texas. Performed agriculture and hunted game. They were friendly to white men in the first years of contact. Disappeared due to disease.

Karawanka

Approx. 1000 BC

Tribe located along the Gulf Coast (Galveston and Corpus Christi). Hunters and gatherers and nomadic.

Tonkawa

Approx. 1000 BC

Lived over the Balcones Escarpment. Hunters, fishers, and gatherers. Lived in buffalo-hide teepees. Maintained themselves in the area of Edwards Plateau.

Early European Exploration and Development

Alonso Alvarez de Pineda (Spain) set foot in TX

Approx. 1519

Cabeza de Vaca (Spain) arrives to TX

Approx. 1528

Shipwrecked in Galveston. Explores the area for 6 years and reaches Mexico City. Tells the legend of the Seven Cities of Gold.

Vasquez de Coronado expedition and Spanish settlement

Approx. 1540 - Approx. 1542

Expedition led by more than 300 men. Passed through NM, western and northern TX and part of KS. He was looking for the cities of gold. He claimed for Spain all the territory explored. Priests began to build their missions.

First Spanish Mission was established

Approx. 1682

Corpus Christi de la Isleta, near El Paso.

French Claim to Texas

Approx. 1685 - Approx. 1689

Sieur de laSalle established Fort St. Louis. The colonists that came with him had a disastrous journey and left for Louisiana two years later. LaSalle was killed by his own men.

Several missions were bulit to protect the area from the French

Approx. 1700

The Alamo was built. The San Antonio de Bexar fort was built. More people began to populate the San Antonio area. Other towns were created: Goliad and Nacogdoches.

Tejanos (Mexicans) arrived to Texas

Approx. 1800

Mexican colonization of the Rio Grande area led to the establishment of Mexican cattle kingdoms, land lines and other Spanish laws, and Mexican frontiersmen who decided to stay (Tejanos).

Stephen Austin settles a colony (Old 300)

Approx. 1821

In the year Mexico gained independence from Spain, Austin gets permission from the Mexican government to settle a colony in the Brazos River region. First land given to Anglos. It also trickled the settlement of more Anglos in the area due to the fertile and inexpensive lands (GTT Gone to Texas).

MX becomes concerned by increasing number of Anglo-Americans in the area

Approx. 1830

Strain the the relationship between Anglos and Mexicans started. Mexico banned further emigration into TX.

Revolution, Republic and Statehood

Stephen Austin is arrested

Approx. 1830

Mexico arrests Austin for a year. In 1835, Austin is convinced that a war with Mexico was necessary in order to become free. Tensions between Mexico and Texas grow.

Battle of Gonzalez

Approx. October 2, 1835

Mexican troops tried to take the cannon in Gonzalez. This was the first battle for TX independence.

Sam Houston sends William Travis to the Alamo

1836

Sam Houston was commander of the TX army. He sends Travis to the Alamo to defend themselves from Santa Ana's army. Travis gathers 189 men.

Battle of the Alamo

Approx. February, 1836 - March 6, 1836

Lasted 13 days. All defenders were dead. David Crockett, Jim Bowie and Travis were killed. A small number of women, children and slaves were spared by Santa Ana. Susanna Dickinson spread the word of what happened and told Houston that resistance was hopeless.

Texas Declaration of Independence was written

March 2, 1836

Prepared overnight as the Alamo was under siege by Santa Ana.

Battle of San Jacinto. Texas gains independence

April 21 1836

Texas wins the war against Santa Ana, becomes independent. Santa Anna is then captured. Treaty of Velazco, MX removes troops. Sam Houston becomes the president of the Republic of Texas.

Houston becomes the capital. In talks with the U.S for annexation

1837

Texas is in talks with the U.S to become part of that country. Many northern states are hesitant as they viewed Texas as a slave state. Austin becomes the capital in 1839.

Texas becomes the 28th state

Approx. 1845

Under President Polk, Texas becomes a state. Houston becomes the governor.