HOBSBAWM: COUNTRIES DOMINANT: ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF IMPERIALISM
a world economy, a single global one (NEW PHASE OF CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC ROOTS OF IMPERIALISM-NATIONAL OVERSEAS ECONOMIC EXPANSION)of the capitalist core of the world (countries)=set the pace of economy, fixed the conditions for economy to function, the rest followed suit turned into a world=Advanced dominated the backward=leading countries had total control and ruled over underdeveloped ones (in terms of industry and economy)= a world of empire.
IMPERIALISM: personal sovereignty of a powerful ruler over vast territories (Erupoe or overseas)
Old fashion: the number of rulers calling themselves emperors was at its maximum: Kaizer (Germany), Czar (Russia), Sultan (Turkey), Japan, Austria
New Type of Empire: COLONIAL
The economic and military supremacy of the capitalist countries had bee without challenge and it translated into a systematic attempt of formal conquest, annexation and administration.
About 1/4 of the globe's land surface was distributed or redistributed as formal and informal colonies and spheres of influence among CAPITALIST POWERS. Britain at its peak.(most of the world was formally partitioned into territories under a formal or informal political domination of greatest powers (GB, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, USA, Japan)RIVALRIES ENGENDERED WWI
Imperialism classical political theory: expansion of a nation states beyond its own borders for the purpose of acquiring overseas dependencies and uniting them in a worldwide empire TO enhance the prestige of the state by ruling over underdeveloped territories regardless of the wished of its people.
Nationalist Imperialism= enlarging the territory of the nation state creating overseas empire to preserve and strengthen the national spirit. Has biological racism variants.
USA: only direct annexations: Puerto Rico (Cuba was allowed a nominal independence) Panama Canal
(outside the) Americas: only major region where there was no serious rivalry between great powers.
Tightening of web transport=drew everyone into the world economy and created a new interest among the powers in remote areas as potential extensions of the developed world. Industrial civilization in need of the exotic-technological development relied on raw materials found in remote placed (tin Asia South Am, gold, copper Chile Peru Zaire Zambia, oil; rubber Congo-Amazon, diamonds Africa)
New branches of big business fortunes tied to particular parts of the globe thus they transformed the rest of the world into complex colonial and semicolonial territories=specialized producers of primary products for export in the word market. (thus they failed to industrialize)
Carving up of the world into colonies and spheres of influence: places to invest capital, search for markets simultaneously by great powers to monopolize business.
New imperialism by product of an international economy based on the rivalry of several competing industrial economies.Child of an era of competition between rival industrial capitalist national economies who wanted to secure ad safeguard markets in a period of business uncertainty.