Minute men and red coats clash at Lexington and Concord. British sent to seize arsenal there.
War fought with French and Spanish help.
They needed a central gov for the 13 indep states (loose association of states) to meet the needs of war).
Confederation of States NOT a union of people. 13 independent political entities. It succeeded only until end of war.
Unicameral legislature representing all states. It enacted laws but depended on the 13 states to agree to pass them. Could not tax but had to rely on contributions from each state. Doc created a gov subservient to 13 others.
Prompted the French that an alliance with the Americans would be advantageous.
To help win the war-Treaty of Amity and commerce: both countries were granted most favored nation status* and agreed to guarantee each other's possessions in the New. W
* is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade. The term means the country which is the recipient of this treatment must, nominally, receive equal trade advantages as the "most favoured nation" by the country granting such treatment. (Trade advantages include low tariffs or high import quotas.) In effect, a country that has been accorded MFN status may not be treated less advantageously than any other country with MFN status by the promising country.
Treaty of Alliance: both countries would fight until G.B. Acknowledged the independence of the U.S
US independence was recognized boundaries from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River and from the 31st parallel in the south to Maine and the Great lakes in the North. Evacuation of British held territory
A gov, consisting of 3 indepe branches each with certain powers that would check the others (legislative passes laws, executive enacts them, judicial enforces them)Checks and Balances
Congress (BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE): would be proportional to population and would elect members from nominations put forward by ind states.Could annul state law and choose the executive and judiciary (supreme court)
A proportional system of representation was favored
BUT THE PLAN FAVORED STATES WITH THE LARGEST POPULATION
Congress: lower house or house of Rep (elected by the ppl on the basis of population) upper house or Senate elected by states each having 2 representatives.
3/5 of slve population would be counted in determining the population for a state's representation in the lower house (slavery issue in the future). No interference with slave trade for 20 years. Congress would regulate trade but no imposition of export duties would be enforced (which we
re demanded by the south cotton tobacco)
EXECUTIVE: Veto power and commander in chief of armed forces. 4 year term
Sentes 6 years, representatives 2 years.
REPUBLIC CREATED HERE: a system of gov in which the head of the state is not hereditary but elected (head of state=of the territory)
head of gov: chief of political party that has won the election (prime minister)
President is both: head of state and gov in a republic
To revise the articles of confederation. They decided to write a new document.
It called for a unicameral legislature, each state would have one vote, the state governments not the ppl would elect the representatives to congress and choose a plural executive with no veto power and a supreme court.
Scheme by which new territories would be added to the Union out of the NorthWest territory. Slavery would be prohibited. They would have to pply for admission as new states when the population reached 60.000.
If a person escaped into the Northwest territory (slave) he could be lawfully reclaimed.
Under Jefferson doubles the nation. (buys if from Napoleon)he needed money to wage war against GB
Prohibition of importation of slaves into the US but trade within the US is not prohibited
To fight the war against Napoleon Britain had tried to prevent U.S. goods from reaching enemy ports. (Continental System 1806) In Parliament had issued a series of Orders-in-Council by which neutral American vessels were seized and seamen were impressed into service in the British Navy. Berlin and Milan decrees, by which Britain was blockaded and neutral ships were threatened with seizure if
they obeyed the orders-in-council. Moreover, many Americans on the western frontiers also resented British military occupation in the Northwest Territories despite the provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 which decreed the evacuation of British-held territory within the U.S.
Impressment: boarding and searching Am ships for their own deserters.
Missouri, which had been carved out of the Louisiana Purchase, sought admission as a slave state a compromise was reached in 1820. Missouri would be accepted as a slave state and Maine, which requested admission as a free state, would be simultaneously admitted thus preserving the free and slave territorial balance. However, The Missouri Compromise stated that slavery would be prohibited in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of the line of latitude 36°It decreed that slaves escaping beyond this point could be reclaimed by law.
Monroe stipulated a course of non intervention on European political affairs as long as European powers did not interfere with Latin American independent states' matters nor colonized Latin American peoples or recolonized the potential territories of he United States
Mexico refused to sell California
Mexico ceded to the United States California along with all of the territory that comprises present day Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico.
It prohibited any person to prevent fugitive slaves from being arrested, rescue them, or aid them or harbor/conceal fine+imprisonment
Fresh territory had opened up with the Mexican cession so A compromise was reached in 1950 that stated that voters in the New Mexico territories, according to the doctrine of popular sovereignty, would decide on the issue of slavery when they applied for statehood.
A bill was introduced to organize the territory of Nebraska without reference to slavery, since it was north of 36° 30' as established by the Missouri Compromise. t was decided to split the territory into two in the Kansas-Nebraska act of 1854 which provided both territories the right to vote whether they would be slave or free. The Missouri as well as the Compromise of 1850 were declared null as the people would be left “perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the Constitution.The Kansan-Nebraska Act led to popular indignation and violence between abolitionists and pro-slavery individuals in Congress. Bleeding Kansas
Stated that a negro was not a citizen of Missouri, as per the Constitution and cannot sue in Court. He is regarded property and as such can be taken anywhere in the US. The constitution protects property. By being taken to a free state he is not free and cannot be set free. Missouri compromise declared null thus Scott is not free by being carried into this territory.
A raid at Harpers Ferry in the hope he would initiate a slave insurrection by seizing the federal arsenal there Virginia