Reconstruction (Chapter 15)

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Johnson President

1865

Civil war ended

1865

Lincoln killed

1865

Amendment 13

1865

abolished slavery

Black Codes

1865

segregation laws

Civil Rights Act

1866

Tenure of Office Act

1867

President can't remove his own cabinet

Amendment 14

1868

granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed.

-defines who citizens are : freed slaves ARE citizens
- states cannot deny US citizenship equal protection under the law and due process of the law
- Dur process - law has to be fair
- substantive - content of law has to be fair
-Bill of Rights applies to states and cannot deny rights from federal
-Unable to enforce
-Courts have to determine whether specific part of the Bill of Rights apply to the states
o 1970s - Supreme Court struck down punishment laws

KKK

1868

lynching is on the rise
-FBI sent agents into south, witnessed illegal activity and tried people
-if you lynch someone in the south at this time, you are tried by state court by jury of peers (white men)

Johnson impeached

1868

Senate tried Johnson
He escaped removal from office by one vote
Presidency was stripped of all authority

Grant elected

1868

considered a failure

"Grantism"

1869 - 1877

Start of the Gilded Age
-Scandal
o Whiskey Ring
o Credit Moblier

Amendment 15

1870

15th amendment –
• Can’t deny free slaves the right to vote
Southern Responses
1. Poll Tax (didn’t work)
2. Literacy Tests (didn’t work)
3. Grandfather Clause – if your grandfather couldn’t vote, you couldn’t vote

Panic of 1873

1873

• Fueled change of opinion
• More industrial, less agricultural
• More severe
• Rail speculation, stock/financial speculation
• Purchase a resource in the hopes that value goes up
• Overproduction = value decreases
• Hit northern industrial cities, with major class issues and racial issues.
• Fear of class war
• Convinced northerners that needed to use resources in Reconstruction to solve northern problems instead

Election of 1876

1876

Turner Thesis

1894

• History professor in Wisconsin
• Late 1894 he wrote a thesis (Turner Thesis) that eulogizes the West
o Writes that the frontier was closing
o Western expansion was the hallmark of the 19th c
o Always expanding west
• Argued economy and identity was driven by western expansion
• Grave concern in the U.S that the economy would be destroyed, loss of identity
• Turner thesis foreshadowed these issues they scared Americans