History Summative Rat #1


Canada Withdraws from Hockey


On January 4th, 1970 Hockey Canada withdrew Team Canada from all IIHF sanctioned international hockey events. It cost Canada the 1972 and 1976 Olympic games and seven world hockey championships, including the hosting of Canada's first ever world championship, which was scheduled to be co-hosted by Winnipeg and Montreal later in 1970.Essentially Canada (and the United States) were forbidden from using professional players of any kind. Of course Canada's best players were all professional, starring in the NHL. Meanwhile the corrupt IIHF allowed European countries, most notably the Eastern communist countries, to use their best players under a very thinly-veiled amateur disguise. So while Canada was sending students and car salesmen to the Olympics and World Championships, Russia and Czechoslovakia were sending players who trained year round, day-in and day-out as hockey players, many of whom were good enough to play in the National Hockey League. As far as the IIHF was concerned they were listed as soldiers or factory workers.

Total Solar Eclipse


The total solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 was visible across all of North America and Central America. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across the surface of the Earth, while a partial solar eclipse will be visible over a region thousands of kilometres wide. There will not be an eclipse with a greater duration of totality over the contiguous United States until the solar eclipse of April 8, 2024, a period of 54 years.

Voting age Lowered to 18


Before the Second World War almost all countries had voting ages of 21 or higher. A large number of countries, particularly in Western Europe, reduced their voting ages to 18 during the 1970s, starting with the United Kingdom in 1970. The USA (26th Amendment), Canada, Australia, France and others followed soon afterwards. By the end of the 20th century, 18 had become by far the most common age at which citizens acquired the right to vote.

War Measures Act Invoked without war


The War Measures Act was a federal statute adopted by Parliament in 1914, after the outbreak of the First World War. It gave broad powers to the Canadian government to maintain security and order during war or insurrection. It was used, controversially, during both world wars and also during the 1970 October Crisis in Quebec. It has since been replaced by the more limited Emergencies Act. The only use of the War Measures Act in a domestic crisis occurred in October and November 1970, when a state of "apprehended insurrection" was declared to exist in Quebec. Emergency regulations were proclaimed in response to two kidnappings by the terrorist group, Front de Liberation du Quebec. The FLQ kidnapped British trade commissioner James Cross, and kidnapped and murdered Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte. As authorities grappled with the crisis, more than 450 people were detained under the powers of the Act; most were later released without the laying or hearing of charges.

Hurricane Beth hits Nova Scotia


Making landfall on Copper Lake, Nova Scotia, Hurricane Beth continued over Cape Breton, on August 16, 1971. Upon landfall, maximum winds for this category 1 hurricane were 120 km/h. Beth also made landfall over Newfoundland as a tropical storm with winds of 111 km/h on August 17.

Cigarette Advertising Ends


After World War II, cigarette companies advertised frequently on television programs. To combat this move by the cigarette companies, the Federal Communications Commission required television stations to air anti-smoking advertisements at no cost to the organizations providing such advertisements. In 1970, Congress took their anti-smoking initiative one step further and passed the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, banning the advertising of cigarettes on television and radio starting on January 2, 1971.

Public Service Strike in Quebec


The story of one of the largest working class rebellions in American history. 300,000 workers participated in North America's largest general strike to that date, radio stations were seized, factories were occupied, and entire towns were brought under workers' control, and it won important gains. What made the rebellion possible was not only an explosive mix of economic exploitation, national oppression, and government repression, but was also a strong, young, and radicalised rank and file of the Quebec trade union movement.

Death of Lester B. Pearson


Unfinished at his death were the Pearson memoirs. The first volume, titled Mike and covering the years until he entered partisan politics, was published earlier this year. A second column is complete and a third was partly written.Although the final illness had been diagnosed late in the fall, Mr. and Mrs. Pearson had flown south to Florida Dec. 17 for a scheduled three-week rest. The disease advanced more quickly than expected and the holiday was cut short. Funeral plans were understood to include a service at Christ Church Anglican cathedral in Ottawa, scene of previous state funerals, and burial across the Ottawa River in Wakefield, Que., and area of natural beauty Mr. Pearson grew to love during spells at a summer home on nearby Barrington Lake. Announcement of the death came through the office of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Mr. Pearson's successor. It said Mrs. Pearson had requested that any individual tributes be in the form of contributions to the Canadian Cancer Society.

First Woman Lieutant-Governor


The Hon. Pauline Mills McGibbon, CC OOnt (October 21, 1910, Sarnia, Ontario – December 14, 2001, Toronto), served as the 22nd Lieutenant Governor of Ontario from 1974 to 1980. In addition to being the first woman to occupy that position, she was also the first woman to serve as a viceregal representative in Canadian history.

Oil Sands Developed


The Alberta Energy Regulator (AER) ensures appropriate precautions are taken to develop oil sands resources in the interests of all Albertans. This happens through regulation, reviewing applications, managing conditions and approvals, surveillance, and enforcement.. AER oil sands requirements, which industry must abide by, exist to maintain public safety during mining and extraction, in situ injection and production, and upgrading.

CN Tower Completed


After 40 months of construction, the CN Tower was opened to the public on June 26, 1976 and it was well on its way to becoming the country’s most celebrated landmark. It is the centre of telecommunications for Toronto serving over 16 Canadian television and FM radio stations, the workplace of over 500 people throughout the year, and an internationally renowned tourism destination. Although the CN Tower inspires a sense of pride and inspiration for Canadians and a sense of awe for foreign tourists, its origins are rooted in practicality. The 1960s ushered in an unprecedented construction boom in Toronto transforming a skyline characterized by relatively low buildings into one dotted with skyscrapers. These buildings caused serious communications problems for existing transmission towers, which were simply not high enough to broadcast over the new buildings. Signals bounced off the buildings creating poor television and radio reception for residents. With its microwave receptors at 338 m (1,109 ft.) and at the 553.33m (1,815 ft., 5 inches) antenna, the CN Tower swiftly solved the communications problems with room to spare and as a result, people living in the Toronto area now enjoy some of the clearest reception in North America.

Human Rights Comission Created


The Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC) was established in 1975 by the government of Canada. It is empowered under the Canadian Human Rights Act to investigate and try to settle complaints of discrimination in employment and in the provision of services within federal jurisdiction. The CHRC is also empowered under the Employment Equity Act to ensure that federally regulated employers provide equal opportunities for four designated groups: women, Aboriginal people, the disabled and visible minorities. The CHRC helps enforce these human rights and inform the general public and employers of these rights.

Mandatory Seat Belts


Ontario, Primary Enforcement, the first date of law was January 1, 1976. All people age of 16+ in all seats. It was a $240 fine for people who were charged for not wearing a seat belt. If you were charged you lost 2 Demerit Points. Ontarians used their seat belt 96.0% of the time.

Child Tax Credit created


The Canada child tax benefit is a tax-free monthly payment made to eligible families to help them with the cost of raising children under age 18. The CCTB may include the national child benefit supplement or child disability benefit. Did you know? Information you provide on your income tax and benefit return is used to calculate your CCTB payments. Make sure you file your income tax and benefit return on time every year, even if you have not received income in the year. If you have a spouse or common-law partner, they also have to file an income tax and benefit return each year.

MPs vote not to reinstate death penalty


"You shall be hanged by the neck until you are dead." A judge has uttered these words to 1,300 Canadians. More than 700 of them actually went to the gallows before Canada abolished capital punishment in 1976. But opinions on the noose have tended to shift over time. Protests in the 1960s were met with questions about preventing the murder of police officers and prison guards.

Compact Disc Invented


Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. The format was originally developed to store and playback sound recordings only (CD-DA), but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, Picture CD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD. Audio CDs and audio CD players have been commercially available since October 1982.At the time of the technology's introduction it had much greater capacity than computer hard drives common at the time. The reverse is now true, with hard drives far exceeding the capacity of CDs.