American History


Civil War

April 12, 1861 - May 10, 1865

Political, Federal government has sovereignty.
Economical, Urban Industrial model
Social, No Slavery
Political, Congress had the power to make a state, a state
Economical, Charity for all, Malice towards none
Social, No social system
Too many deaths, too much damage


Abraham Lincoln

March 4, 1861 - April 15, 1865

10% Plan

December 8, 1863

10% of the people who voted in the 1860's presidential candidacy must swear loyalty under the U.S constitution to be able to send representatives back to Congress

Andrew Johnson

April 15, 1865 - March 4, 1869

Pardon's Issued

October 1, 1865

If you come to the president, you are pardoned

Johnson Declares End to Reconstruction

December 1, 1865

President Johnson declares the reconstruction process complete. Outraged, Radical Republicans in Congress refuse to recognize new governments in southern states.

Johnson Violates Tenure of Office Act

August 12, 1867

Johnson removes secretary of war, Edward Stanton and appoints someone else.


Feb 24, 1868

The House of Representatives votes to impeach the president, with the Senate presiding.
Impeachment can happen by treason, breaking the law, insanity

Johnson Avoids Removal

March 27, 1868

President Andrew Johnson avoids removal from office by one vote (35-19) in the Senate. He will not get the Democratic nomination in the upcoming presidential election.

Ulysses S. Grant

March 4, 1869 - March 4, 1877


Congressional elections are held every two years. There are elections for 1/3rd of the Senate (who sit for six years) There are elections for all of the House of Representatives who all stand for re-election after two years. (These are held mid-way [two years] through a president’s term in office and are called mid-term elections.) Mid-terms can be used as an indicator of what the electorate think about the president’s performance and "their results can be of critical importance to the incumbent president."

*First Tuesday after the first Monday in November

Wade Davis Bill

July 8, 1864

Must agree to the 13th Amendment
50% must pledge loyalty
Lincoln pocket-vetoes it.

Freedmen Bureau Established

March 3, 1865

The temporary Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (known as the Freedmen's Bureau) is established within the War Department

13th Amendment Ratified

December 18, 1865

The Thirteenth Amendment is ratified, prohibiting slavery and involuntary servitude.

Civil Rights Bill

April 9, 1866

Congress passes the Civil Rights Bill over Johnson's veto. Johnson objects to the Bill on the grounds that blacks did not deserve to become citizens, and that doing so would discriminate against the white race. He also thought that both the Civil Rights Bill and the Freedmen's Bureau Bill would centralize power at the federal level, thus depriving states of the authority to govern their own affairs (a typical prewar philosophy of government).

Uncertified Credentials

November 5, 1866

Congress must certify your credentials in order to be a part of congress. They don't accept confederate ones.

Army Appropriations Act of 1867

March 2, 1867

A funding bill that stated that, "All orders going to the army must be passed through the general of the Army, Eulysses Grant.

The Tenure of Office Act

March 2, 1867

An act that was intended to limit the power of the U.S. president by stating that you needed approval of the senate to remove certain office holders

Reconstruction Acts of 1867

March 2, 1867

Creation of five military districts in the seceded states
Each district was to be headed by a military official empowered to appoint and remove state officials.
Voters were to be registered; all freedmen were to be included
States were required to ratify the 14th Amendment prior to readmission.

Fourteenth Amendment Ratified

July 28, 1868

The Fourteenth Amendment is ratified: it revokes the three-fifths compromise in the Constitution and creates a new federal category of citizenship.

Fifteenth Amendment Ratified

March 30, 1870

Universal male suffrage is now the law of the land (every man can vote)

Final Readmission

July 15, 1870

Georgia is the last former Confederate State to be readmitted to the Union

Ku Klux Klan Act

April 1, 1871

Congress passes the Ku Klux Klan Act, a more far-reaching reform than the Enforcement Acts. This is the first time that specific crimes committed by individuals are deemed punishable by federal law.


40 Acres

January 16, 1865

General William T. Sherman issues Special Field Order 15, setting aside confiscated plantation land in the Sea Islands and along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia for black families to settle in 40-acre plots. Some 40,000 freedmen and women are living on the land by June.

Union Demobilized

December 1, 1865

The Union Army is quickly demobilized. From a troop strength of one million on May 1, only 152,000 Union soldiers remain in the South by the end of 1865.

The South

Black Codes

November 1, 1865

Southern legislatures begin drafting "Black Codes" to re-establish white supremacy.

Ku Klux Klan

December 24, 1865

A terrorist group that burned crosses, walked in the dark with white masks, eventually went to killing