The Special Corps of Gendarmes and the Third Section were disbanded; their functions and most capable officers were transferred to the new Department of State Police under the MVD.
Severe famine affects almost half of Russia's provinces
The Kadets dropped seats, benefiting the RSDLP and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
Nicholas II abdicates and includes his son. The following day, Nicholas' brother, Mikhail announced his refusal to accept the throne. Provisional Government formed.
The murder had been ordered in Moscow by Vladimir Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov to prevent the rescue of the Imperial Family by approaching White forces during the ongoing Russian Civil War.
Estimates range from 4 to 7 million deaths, the majority of them being Ukranians.
Famine kills one million people in Russia and Ukraine.
Khrushchev's rivals in the party deposed him at a Central Committee meeting. Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin assumed power as First Secretary and Premier, respectively.
Tsar Alexander II issued a decree giving serfs the right to buy the land they worked and reducing their dependence on the land owning nobility.
Zemstva were established for the local self-government of Russian citizens.
A royal decree introduced new laws unifying and liberalizing the Russian judiciary.
Land and Liberty split into the moderate Black Repartition and the radical terrorist group People's Will.
Alexander III introduces factory inspections and restricts working hours for women and children
The Peasants' Land Bank was a financial institution of the Russian Empire founded by the Minister of Finance, Nikolai Bunge. He created the Peasants' Land Bank in 1883 to help peasants purchase their own farms.
Lenin's brother, Alexander Ulyanov, is hanged for plotting to kill Czar Alexander III
Lenin is arrested, kept in solitary confinement for 13 months, and then exiled to Siberia for three years
The Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) meeting in which the Party splits into two factions: Mensheviks ("minority") and Bolsheviks ("majority")
A mutiny occurred aboard the battleship Potemkin.
The October Manifesto, issued by Tsar Nicholas II, brings an end to the 1905 Russian Revolution by promising civil liberties and an elected parliament (Duma)
The first free elections to the Duma gave majorities to liberal and socialist parties.
A constitution (the Fundamental Laws of 1906) is created, reflecting the promises made in the October Manifesto
The Russian army fired on a crowd of striking miners, killing 150
The workers at the Putilov Plant in Petrograd went on strike.
Nicholas ordered the dissolution of the Fourth Duma. The Duma ignored his order and decreed the establishment of a Provisional Government with Georgy L'vov as Prime Minister.
The July Days begin in Petrograd with spontaneous protests against the Provisional Government; after the Bolsheviks unsuccessfully try to direct these protests into a coup, Lenin is forced into hiding
A failed coup by General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Russian Army
The October Revolution was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd. The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917 (O.S.). The following day, the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia), was captured.
The Winter Palace, the last holdout of the Provisional Government, is taken by the Bolsheviks; the Council of People's Commissars (abbreviated as Sovnarkom), led by Lenin, is now in control of Russia
After giving a speech at a Moscow factory, Lenin was shot twice by SR Fanny Kaplan, but survived.
The Red Terror in Soviet Russia refers to a campaign of mass killings, torture, and systematic oppression conducted by the Bolsheviks after seizing power in Petrograd and Moscow.The mass repressions were conducted by the Cheka (the Bolshevik secret police), together with elements of the Bolshevik military intelligence agency (the GRU).
The 1924 Soviet Constitution legitimated the December 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR between the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Belarusian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
In essence, it was but an expansion of the Treaty, as most of the key points were already outlined there. The Constitution contained the identical to the Treaty Declaration, reflecting the current world order, and the common good causes of such a Union, allowing for a potential expansion.
Trotsky was expelled from the Politburo.
The Great Purge was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union involving a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and arbitrary executions.
Lavrentii Beriia, head of KGB, arrested. (He was executed in December.)
Malenkov, Molotov and Lazar Kaganovich orchestrated a Presidium vote to dismiss Khrushchev by a vote of 8-4 (Suslov, Furtseva and Mikoyan supported Khrushchev), but the Central Committee overturned the vote. Malenkov sent as director of a power station in a remote corner of Central Asia; Kaganovich made director of a cement factory in Sverdlovsk; and Molotov became ambassador to Mongolia.
Soviet workers gathered in the town square of Novocherkassk to protest an increase in food prices and work quotas. Shots were fired at the rioters, killing 25 and injuring 87 people.
The Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the war. The Black Sea was demilitarized. Russia lost territory it had been granted at the mouth of the Danube, abandoned claims to protect Turkish Christians, and lost its influence over the Danubian Principalities.
Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. It originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors included Russian hopes of recovering losses suffered during the Crimean War, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea, and attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of San Stephano was signed, ending the war. Several Slavic states, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria, received independence or autonomy.
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war fought between the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army, the loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies.
Russia is all but defenceless as virtually the entire army has deserted.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, between Germany and Russia, is signed and takes Russia out of World War I
The Czecho-Slovak Legions began its revolt against the Bolshevik government.
The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
The Korean War was a war between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, also assisted by the Soviet Union. The war arose from the division of Korea at the end of World War II and from the global tensions of the Cold War that developed immediately afterwards. The war has been seen both as a civil war and as a proxy conflict in the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Berlin Crisis was the last major politico-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the German capital city, Berlin, and of post–World War II Germany. The USSR provoked the Berlin Crisis with an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Western armed forces from West Berlin—culminating with the city's de facto partition with the East German erection of the Berlin Wall.
The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany)that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.
The Cuban missile crisis was a 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between the United States and Cuba backed by the Soviet Union. It is widely regarded as the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full scale nuclear war and is also the first documented instance of mutual assured destruction (MAD) being discussed as a determining factor in the outcome of an international incident.
Witte's Great Spurt increases industrial growth after he becomes financial minister
After the hardship of civil war, the Russian economy was stagnating. Lenin signed a decree introducing the New Economic Policy which, in a step back from the principles of the revolution, allowed small businesses to once again operate in the Soviet Union, and to seek to profit from their work.
A Central Committee resolution began the collectivisation of Soviet agriculture.
was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of socialist states elsewhere in the world. Comecon was meant to prevent countries in the Soviets’ sphere of influence from moving towards that of the Americans and South-East Asia.
Khrushchev’s 1953 plan to dramatically boost the Soviet Union’s agricultural production in order to alleviate the food shortages plaguing the Soviet populace.
An anti-Russian uprising began in Poland. IT was put down when the leader was hanged.
Alexander signed the Ems Ukaz, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print.
Alexander III introduced the May Laws, which expelled Russian Jews from rural areas and small towns and severely restricted their access to education
As part of the Russification of Finland, Nicholas issues the Language Manifesto of 1900, making Russian the official language of Finnish administration.
A three-day pogrom began, which would leave forty-seven Jews dead
The German government established the nominally independent Kingdom of Poland in the Act of 5 November
An anti-communist popular uprising led by Imre Nagy in Hungary is crushed by Soviet troops killing 2,800 people