characterised by: New Forms of Religious Expression, Population Growth, Agricultural/Technological Innovation, Urbanization, Social Transformation, Slow Expansion of education & literacy, Strengthening of Centralized Power, Shift from defensive to offensive, & Economic growth.
characterised by various crises on mainland Europe involving plague, famine, papal strife, etc.
a period of rebirth of classical ideas characterised by a flourishing art scene, the advancement of scientific fields and the prosperity of city states largely thanks to trade. Hosted movements such as: humanism, individualism, the commune movement, and secularism.
the time of the Avignon papacy when the Philip IV the Fair forced Boniface VIII to take seat in Avignon instead of Rome
a Christian reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Church as a corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the Pope
caused by Babylonian captivity, lots of people claimed to be Pope, was ended at Council of Constance
Muslims from the South, Magyars from the East, and Vikings (Danes) from the North
the reconquest of Iberia by Christian Kingdoms vs. the Muslims (the Moors) - parts of Spain were taken back a bit at a time and towards 1300 Iberia was Christian again with the exception of a tiny Muslim part at the southern tip
Seljuk Turks invade Byzantium and capture most of their land in Asia Minor. As a result, Emperor Alexis writes a letter to Pope Urban II in the West asking for military help/backup.
Urban II appeals to (mainly) Frankish knights at the Council of Clermont urging them to pick up arms and go to Constantinople to help out Byzantine emperor Alexis but more importantly, to take back the holy lands from infidels.
Initially, a bunch of impassioned peasants and common people with no military experience marched off to Constantinople (most of them died). A more professional group of soldiers went to Jerusalem & captured it. They also established the 4 Latin Kingdoms (outremer).
The crusader County of Edessa fell and Bernard of Clairvaux urges/inspires people to go on another crusade. Louis VII (France) goes on it with Eleanor of Aquitaine but fails to reconquer Jerusalem.
Saladin crushes crusader state armies and takes back Jerusalem (really bad moment for Christendom)
Salah al-din Yusuf (Saladin) rises as a powerful Muslim military commander and really becomes a threat to Christendom. The three rulers who went on it: Barbarossa (Germany) drowned in a puddle on the way, Philip Augustus II (France) argues with Richard and goes home, and Richard I (England) continues on and does a bunch of brave deeds but fails to reconquer Jerusalem.
called by Innocent III, troops never reached the holy land because they kept getting diverted. They ended up in Constantinople and sacked it.
the Fourth Crusade soldiers sacked and plundered Constantinople
Charles of Ajou, the Capetian dynasty, and the Papacy VS. the Sicilians and the Kings of Aragon. The Pope had appointed Charles of Anjou to be King of Sicily because he didn't want the HRE (Germany) to be there and threaten his rule but the Sicilians revolted against the French rule and invited the Spanish to rule them instead.
the weather was really bad and therefore crops suffered enormous losses and therefore the people starved everywhere and died
France vs. England - an English king could be heir to the French throne after the death of Philip IV the Fair's son, Charles IV. Though it looked good for the English for a while, the French ultimately expelled the English OUT of their lands.
the bubonic plague was thought to have been introduced into Europe by Genoese sailors in Sicily who brought the disease from Asia.
from Alfred the Great ending before William the Conqueror; we talked about Alfred the Great, Edward (Alfred's son), Ethelred the Unready, Canute, and Edward the Confessor.
Alfred the Great unites the Anglo-Saxons in a victory against the Danes, who retreat into the Danelaw
from William the Conqueror to Henry I, with Stephen du Blois (usurper) at the end; we talked about William the Conqueror, William II, Henry I, and Stephen du Blois.
William the Conqueror (William the Bastard) of Normandy conquers England
from Henry II to Edward I, even though the Angevin empire ended in 1214; we talked about Henry II, Richard the Lionhearted, John, Henry III, and Edward.
Philip (France) has a decisive victory over John (England) and his army & thus recovers Normandy and Anjou resulting in the Angevin Empire being dissolved.
King John was a military and diplomatic failure -
the Magna Carta’s goal was to keep the king within a controlled boundary i.e. they couldn’t just do ANYTHING they wanted - kings had to pay taxes too and they also couldn’t raise or lower taxes without consultation
an intensified sort of Magna Carta which said that the king has to consult his magnates at councils for all decisions
Parliament was a representative assembly consisting of great lords (clergy and not) as well as knights, etc. which advised the king at councils three times a year (still exists today, though it's changed). It was created under Henry III, but only became truly active under Edward.
starts with Pepin the Short thru to the division of the French territories under Louis the Pious (Charlemagne's son) into three pieces amongst his offspring
under Louis the Fat (Capetian), he consolidated the French lands under direct control of the french monarchy, from Ile de France to surrounding territories.
momentarily married Eleanor of Aquitaine but divorced after the 2nd crusade, he struggled with the creation of the Angevin empire (England claiming French lands), under his rule there was the construction of the Notre Dame and the University of Paris.
broke up the Angevin empire by defeating John (England) at the Battle of Bouvines, established Paris as the capital of France, built the Louvre as a defensive fort.
very devout Christian king (actually canonized St. Louis), was rubbish at fighting but went on crusades anyway, his brother was Charles of Anjou who was sent by the Pope to be the King of Sicily instead of the Germans (involved in the War of the Sicilian Vespers).
restricted the feudal system, expelled the Jews from France, had a conflict with Pope Boniface VIII because he wanted the papacy to have seat in France and not Rome (Babylonian captivity, Slap at Anagni, etc.).
Philip IV the Fair seeked council on the whole Boniface thing so he called up different groups of people for help (workers, clergy, etc)
national French symbol during the Hundred Years War
Otto the First (the Great) officially defeats the invading Magyars and drives the barbarians out of 'Germany'
conflict between HRE Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII on the election of clergymen - lots of excommunication and begging for forgiveness etc.
resolved the Lay Investiture Controversy between the papacy and the HRE