Birth of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Gandhi accepts commission to spend a year in South Africa advising on a lawsuit.
Second Boer War (vs British)—most famous of the 2 wars
Outbreak of Boer War (1899-1901) in South Africa. Gandhi organizes an ambulance corps for the British.
Union of South Africa created (new constitution allows Boers to keep discriminatory ways in its areas)
South Africans fight in WW1 (receive German South Africa—Namibia) as a “mandate”
--> followed by 10 pt ultimatum from Austro Hungarian Empire on Serbia
Gandhi and Smuts, the Prime Minister of the Transvaal, reach an agreement, ending the protests.
William II and Nicolas II friendly/ family letters to each other
(= military is ready for war) --> Russia is ready to help Serbia vs. Austro Hungarian Empire
Germany invades Belgium --> UK ally with Belgium(treaty 1839) --> UK declares war on Germany
Hussein-McMahon Letters from UK incite Arab Revolt by promising land to Muslims
Battle of Somme (1st day 60 000 Br killed!)
Balfour Declaration from UK intl Jewry donate money to Allies in exch for Zion control
Tsar Nicholas II overthrown in 1st Russian Revolution, democratic Provisional Govt established
US enters the war (not until Nov do large numbers arrive); Canadians take Vimy Ridge
Russian Provisional Govt overthrown; Lenin and Communists come to power in Russia, vow to end war
March Russia pulls out of war (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk); Allied naval blockade=German food shortages; German Spring Offensive where Germans come to “within 35 miles of Paris.”—by August stalemate=Germans could not win
(11th hour of the 11th day of the 11 month) “Guns fell silent on the Western Front”=Armistice (Remembrance/Armistice/Veterans Day)=END OF THE WAR
Paris Peace Conferences occur to determine treaties for 5 belligerents (G, A, H, B, Otto); “Big 3” (USA/Br/Fr), “Big 4” (+ Italy), “Big 5” (+ Japan) leaders leave after 6 months and foreign service staff do the vast majority of treaty work
Amritsar Massacre; Under General Dyer, British troops slaughter Indian protesters.
Gandhi calls for a period of non-cooperation across India.
Reparations Committee determines Germany must pay $34 billion (USD), 52% Fr, 28% UK, rest to everyone else—Fr had originally wanted 70!) payable over 42 years=Germany defaults; payments have to be “rescheduled” with the Dawes (1924) and Young (1929) Plans. Payments restarted after Germany reunified: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_reparations
Treaty of Lausanne negotiated by Ataturk, repudiates Treaty of Sevres. Turkey and 6 mandates (Fr: Syria, Lebanon; Br: Iraq, Kuwait, TransJordan, Palestine) are created
from 1516 till 1923 --> Ottoman Turkish rule incl WW1 (1914-1923)
Treaty of Sevres with Sultan renegotiated in 1923 by Ataturk=Treaty of Lausanne (lands given to Greece given back to Turkey)=technical end of WW1
Turkey officially created (secular, new language, 1st time Koran not in Arabic) + Sunni Caliphate abolished
Despite his long absence from politics, Gandhi becomes President of the Indian National Congress (= INC)
Jews move back to Palestine, Palestinians angry=1936: 2nd Arab Revolt= Civil War
Gandhi leads his Salt March to the sea.
Gandhi is arrested for violating the Salt Laws; non-cooperation movements break out across India.
Gandhi fasts in prison to protest the treatment of untouchables.
World War Two (Civil War is halted; Holocaust=6 million Jews killed)
World War Two—blacks replace whites in their jobs; unemployment of whites afterwards…
A boat called “Exodus” filled with Holocaust survivors is refused ability to land in Palestine; sets off attacks on British rule of mandate and ignites Civil War Arabs vs Israelis
UN takes over control of Palestine/“Partition” plan=Arabs reject, UN move forward anyway
National Party wins elections—apartheid implemented
“Israel” is declared an independent Jewish state
1st Arab Israeli War (“War of Independence” vs “The Catastrophe”):
6 nations attack (Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq)
Israel gains territory (now 70%) & remains a state=”wins.”
No peace treaty, only a “truce” (SA, Leb, Syria, and Iraq tech still “at war” & don’t recognize Israel’s “right to exist”)
Jordan takes over West Bank & East Jerusalem (incl the Western Wall); Syria=Golan Heights; Egypt=Gaza Strip
beginning of 1st Palestinian “diaspora” to those countries that surround Israel
UN Resolution 194: “Right of Return” (its like Pal “Exodus”) established for Palestinians + free access Holy places in exchange for peace=not implemented as no “peace”
Protests vs “Six Unjust Laws” incl June: Defiance Campaign
Bantu Education Act (extended in 1976) = Bantu children educated for unskilled jobs.
Bantu Self Government Act (builds on 1913 Native Land Act creating Bantustans and uses Pass Laws)
Democratic (Progressive) Party founded to protest apartheid ie Helen Suzman
PAC formed led by Robert Sobukwe
Sharpeville; ANC and PAC banned; MK and Poqo created; BCM idea launched
Mandela + 9 others arrested=Rivonia Trials=life imprisonment on Robben Island (3 of 10 not imprisoned)
PLO formed in Jordan (biggest group within it=Fatah led by Yasser Arafat)
3rd Arab Israeli War (“6 Day War” vs “June War”):
-Israel defeats Egypt, Jordan and Syria in 6 Days & “occupies” Gaza, Sinai (NEVER a part of any land agreement before), E. Jerusalem, West Bank & Golan Hts=“Occupied Territories” (b/c not part of the 1948 territorial agreement by UN)
Palestinians flee, mostly Jordan=2nd Palestinian “diaspora” (still seek their “exodus” =“The Right of Return”)
UN Resolution 242: call for return to pre-1967 borders in exchange for peace. =MAIN border proposal for a Palestinian state, but is not implemented yet, mostly as Hamas doesn’t recognize Israel’s “Right to Exist.”
4th Arab Israeli War(“Yom Kippur War” vs “October 6 War”): Egypt & Jordan attack Israel, Israel pushes Egypt back & takes west side of the Suez Canal. US intervened to negotiate: Israel withdrew from gains in Egypt to east of Suez & gains in Syria=leads to beginning of peace negotiations between Egypt and Israel
Peaceful protest vs. Extension of Bantu Education Act --> hundreds of children died --> internationally spread of news about massacre.
Steven Biko was killed in the police --> news spread around the world
Camp David Peace Accord: Israel signs first peace from 1949 War with Egypt (Begin, Sadat and Carter—Sadat is assassinated by an Arab in 1981 due to making peace with Israel)
PB Botha takes power=Total Strategy implemented
Anti-apartheid protests domestically + worldwide (economic/sports boycotts/sanctions, concerts, protests) with main in 1987 US oil sanctions
Israel invades Lebanon to stop Hezbollah (party of Palestinian refugees): Israeli troops remain until 2000.
“State of Emergency”= white Security Forces could do what they wanted
“Intifada” (“Uprising”) of Palestinians in Gaza, then all of Occupied Territories against Israel; Hamas created (doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to exist).
PLO-Fatah/Arafat “recognize Israel’s right to exist” in order to make progress on national status/refugee claims
FW DeKlerk takes power “Gorbachev of South Africa”
DeKlerk lifts bank on ANC, PAC, frees political prisoners; Mandela released
Namibia achieves independence (last African colony to do so)
Oslo Peace Accord: sets up an interim “Palestinian Authority” of West Bank/Gaza Strip in exchange for peace; capital at Ramallah; led by Arafat. Israel under PM Rabin controls borders, foreign policy, trade. Not fully implemented due to peace not fulfilled due to Hamas. Intifada is stopped.
Jordan and Israel sign peace agreement/end 1949 war (Rabin, Hussein, Clinton: Rabin assassinated by a Jew for making peace with Arabs)
First free elections April; Mandela first non-White President May 10=official end of apartheid
Truth and Reconciliation Commission under Rev Desmond Tutu
South Africa wins the Rugby World Cup, uniting a nation (Invictus)
Construction of Barrier/Fence/Wall around Gaza and West Bank begins in response to 2nd Intifada violence
Israel withdraws from Gaza and free elections occur—Jan 2006 Hamas is elected=violence w/Israel ensues