20th century


Middle East

South Africa


Birth of Gandhi

October 2, 1869

Birth of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Gandhi moves to SA

April 1893

Gandhi accepts commission to spend a year in South Africa advising on a lawsuit.

Second Boer War

1899 - 1902

Second Boer War (vs British)—most famous of the 2 wars

Second Boer War --> Gandhi fights for UK

October 1899 - 1902

Outbreak of Boer War (1899-1901) in South Africa. Gandhi organizes an ambulance corps for the British.

WWI: Schlieffen Plan


Schlieffen Plan:

Union of South Africa created


Union of South Africa created (new constitution allows Boers to keep discriminatory ways in its areas)

South Africans in WW1

1914 - 1918

South Africans fight in WW1 (receive German South Africa—Namibia) as a “mandate”

WWI: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

--> followed by 10 pt ultimatum from Austro Hungarian Empire on Serbia

Gandhi and Smuts agreement

June 30, 1914

Gandhi and Smuts, the Prime Minister of the Transvaal, reach an agreement, ending the protests.

WWI: Willy Nicky Letters

July 29, 1914 - August 1, 1914

William II and Nicolas II friendly/ family letters to each other

WWI: Russia mobilizes

July 30, 1914

(= military is ready for war) --> Russia is ready to help Serbia vs. Austro Hungarian Empire

WWI: Germany declares war on Russia

August 1, 1914

WWI: Germany declares war on France

August 3, 1914

WWI: Britain declares war on Germany

August 4, 1914

Germany invades Belgium --> UK ally with Belgium(treaty 1839) --> UK declares war on Germany

WWI: Russia attacks Germany

August 17, 1914

WWI: Australians/NZ/UK forces lose to the Turks at Gallipoli

February, 1915 - August, 1915

Hussein-McMahon Letters


Hussein-McMahon Letters from UK incite Arab Revolt by promising land to Muslims

WWI: Battle of Somme

July 1, 1916

Battle of Somme (1st day 60 000 Br killed!)

Balfour Declaration


Balfour Declaration from UK intl Jewry donate money to Allies in exch for Zion control

WWI: 1st Russian Revolution

February, 1917

Tsar Nicholas II overthrown in 1st Russian Revolution, democratic Provisional Govt established

WWI: USA enters the war

April, 1917

US enters the war (not until Nov do large numbers arrive); Canadians take Vimy Ridge

WWI: Communists rule in Russia

October, 1917

Russian Provisional Govt overthrown; Lenin and Communists come to power in Russia, vow to end war

WWI: German begins to lose


March Russia pulls out of war (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk); Allied naval blockade=German food shortages; German Spring Offensive where Germans come to “within 35 miles of Paris.”—by August stalemate=Germans could not win

WWI: Ottoman Empire surrenders

November 3, 1918


November 11, 1918

(11th hour of the 11th day of the 11 month) “Guns fell silent on the Western Front”=Armistice (Remembrance/Armistice/Veterans Day)=END OF THE WAR

WWI: Paris Peace Conferences


Paris Peace Conferences occur to determine treaties for 5 belligerents (G, A, H, B, Otto); “Big 3” (USA/Br/Fr), “Big 4” (+ Italy), “Big 5” (+ Japan) leaders leave after 6 months and foreign service staff do the vast majority of treaty work

Amritsar Massacre

April 13, 1919

Amritsar Massacre; Under General Dyer, British troops slaughter Indian protesters.

Non-cooperation across India

August 1, 1920

Gandhi calls for a period of non-cooperation across India.

WWI: Germany compensation


Reparations Committee determines Germany must pay $34 billion (USD), 52% Fr, 28% UK, rest to everyone else—Fr had originally wanted 70!) payable over 42 years=Germany defaults; payments have to be “rescheduled” with the Dawes (1924) and Young (1929) Plans. Payments restarted after Germany reunified:

Treaty of Lausanne/ Treaty of Sevres --> creation of Palestine


Treaty of Lausanne negotiated by Ataturk, repudiates Treaty of Sevres. Turkey and 6 mandates (Fr: Syria, Lebanon; Br: Iraq, Kuwait, TransJordan, Palestine) are created

ANC founded


WWI:Treaty of Sevres --> End of WWI


Treaty of Sevres with Sultan renegotiated in 1923 by Ataturk=Treaty of Lausanne (lands given to Greece given back to Turkey)=technical end of WW1

Ottoman Turkish rule


from 1516 till 1923 --> Ottoman Turkish rule incl WW1 (1914-1923)

Creation of Turkey


Turkey officially created (secular, new language, 1st time Koran not in Arabic) + Sunni Caliphate abolished

Gandhi President of the INC


Despite his long absence from politics, Gandhi becomes President of the Indian National Congress (= INC)

Jews immigrate to Palestine


Jews move back to Palestine, Palestinians angry=1936: 2nd Arab Revolt= Civil War

Salt March

March 12, 1931 - April 6, 1931

Gandhi leads his Salt March to the sea.

Non-cooperation across India (after Salt March--> G. arrested)

May 5, 1931

Gandhi is arrested for violating the Salt Laws; non-cooperation movements break out across India.

Gandhi fasts for Untouchebles

September 20, 1932 - September 25, 1932

Gandhi fasts in prison to protest the treatment of untouchables.

2nd Arab Revolt= Civil War


WWII: blacks replace whites in jobs

1939 - 1945

World War Two—blacks replace whites in their jobs; unemployment of whites afterwards…

WWII --> Holocaust

1939 - 1945

World War Two (Civil War is halted; Holocaust=6 million Jews killed)

Jewish Exodus --> Arab vs. Israelis war --> UN partition plan


A boat called “Exodus” filled with Holocaust survivors is refused ability to land in Palestine; sets off attacks on British rule of mandate and ignites Civil War Arabs vs Israelis

UN takes over control of Palestine/“Partition” plan=Arabs reject, UN move forward anyway

National Party wins --> Apartheid implemented


National Party wins elections—apartheid implemented

Israel created

May 14, 1948

“Israel” is declared an independent Jewish state

1st Arab Israeli War

May 15, 1948

1st Arab Israeli War (“War of Independence” vs “The Catastrophe”):
6 nations attack (Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq)

1st Palestinian Diaspora --> Resolution 194


Israel gains territory (now 70%) & remains a state=”wins.”

No peace treaty, only a “truce” (SA, Leb, Syria, and Iraq tech still “at war” & don’t recognize Israel’s “right to exist”)

Jordan takes over West Bank & East Jerusalem (incl the Western Wall); Syria=Golan Heights; Egypt=Gaza Strip

beginning of 1st Palestinian “diaspora” to those countries that surround Israel

UN Resolution 194: “Right of Return” (its like Pal “Exodus”) established for Palestinians + free access Holy places in exchange for peace=not implemented as no “peace”

Protests vs “Six Unjust Laws”


Protests vs “Six Unjust Laws” incl June: Defiance Campaign

Bantu Education Act


Bantu Education Act (extended in 1976) = Bantu children educated for unskilled jobs.

Freedom Charter


Group Areas Act


Bantu Self Government Act & PAC formed


Bantu Self Government Act (builds on 1913 Native Land Act creating Bantustans and uses Pass Laws)

Democratic (Progressive) Party founded to protest apartheid ie Helen Suzman

PAC formed led by Robert Sobukwe

Sharpeville & MK and Poqo created


Sharpeville; ANC and PAC banned; MK and Poqo created; BCM idea launched

Rivonia Trials --> Mandela arrested

1962 - 1963

Mandela + 9 others arrested=Rivonia Trials=life imprisonment on Robben Island (3 of 10 not imprisoned)

PLO formed


PLO formed in Jordan (biggest group within it=Fatah led by Yasser Arafat)

3rd Arab Israeli War --> 2nd Palestinian Diaspora --> UN Resolution 242


3rd Arab Israeli War (“6 Day War” vs “June War”):
-Israel defeats Egypt, Jordan and Syria in 6 Days & “occupies” Gaza, Sinai (NEVER a part of any land agreement before), E. Jerusalem, West Bank & Golan Hts=“Occupied Territories” (b/c not part of the 1948 territorial agreement by UN)

Palestinians flee, mostly Jordan=2nd Palestinian “diaspora” (still seek their “exodus” =“The Right of Return”)

UN Resolution 242: call for return to pre-1967 borders in exchange for peace. =MAIN border proposal for a Palestinian state, but is not implemented yet, mostly as Hamas doesn’t recognize Israel’s “Right to Exist.”

4th Arab Israeli War


4th Arab Israeli War(“Yom Kippur War” vs “October 6 War”): Egypt & Jordan attack Israel, Israel pushes Egypt back & takes west side of the Suez Canal. US intervened to negotiate: Israel withdrew from gains in Egypt to east of Suez & gains in Syria=leads to beginning of peace negotiations between Egypt and Israel

UN expels South Africa


Soweto Massacre


Peaceful protest vs. Extension of Bantu Education Act --> hundreds of children died --> internationally spread of news about massacre.

Steven Biko killed


Steven Biko was killed in the police --> news spread around the world

Camp David Peace Accord

1978 - 1979

Camp David Peace Accord: Israel signs first peace from 1949 War with Egypt (Begin, Sadat and Carter—Sadat is assassinated by an Arab in 1981 due to making peace with Israel)

PB Botha takes power in SA --> Total Strategy


PB Botha takes power=Total Strategy implemented

Anti-apartheid protests


Anti-apartheid protests domestically + worldwide (economic/sports boycotts/sanctions, concerts, protests) with main in 1987 US oil sanctions

Israel invades Lebanon


Israel invades Lebanon to stop Hezbollah (party of Palestinian refugees): Israeli troops remain until 2000.

State of Emergency

1986 - 1991

“State of Emergency”= white Security Forces could do what they wanted

“Intifada” & Hamas created


“Intifada” (“Uprising”) of Palestinians in Gaza, then all of Occupied Territories against Israel; Hamas created (doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to exist).

PLO recognizes Israel


PLO-Fatah/Arafat “recognize Israel’s right to exist” in order to make progress on national status/refugee claims

FW DeKlerk takes power in SA


FW DeKlerk takes power “Gorbachev of South Africa”

Mandela released & Namibia independence


DeKlerk lifts bank on ANC, PAC, frees political prisoners; Mandela released

Namibia achieves independence (last African colony to do so)

Oslo Peace Accord


Oslo Peace Accord: sets up an interim “Palestinian Authority” of West Bank/Gaza Strip in exchange for peace; capital at Ramallah; led by Arafat. Israel under PM Rabin controls borders, foreign policy, trade. Not fully implemented due to peace not fulfilled due to Hamas. Intifada is stopped.

Jordan and Israel peace


Jordan and Israel sign peace agreement/end 1949 war (Rabin, Hussein, Clinton: Rabin assassinated by a Jew for making peace with Arabs)

Mandela President of SA --> End of apartheid

May 10, 1994

First free elections April; Mandela first non-White President May 10=official end of apartheid

Truth and Reconciliation Commission --> Desmond Tutu & SA wins Rugby World Cup

1995 - 1998

Truth and Reconciliation Commission under Rev Desmond Tutu

South Africa wins the Rugby World Cup, uniting a nation (Invictus)

Construction of Wall --> 2nd Intifada


Construction of Barrier/Fence/Wall around Gaza and West Bank begins in response to 2nd Intifada violence

Israel withdraws from Gaza


Israel withdraws from Gaza and free elections occur—Jan 2006 Hamas is elected=violence w/Israel ensues