American Studies


Civil Rights

Montgomery Bus Boycott

1955 - 1956

After Rosa Parks was arrested, the African American community boycotted Montgomery buses for 11 months, until laws were changed.
Desegregation laws were put in place.

Little Rock Nine


9 African Americans were enrolled in Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas. They were stopped from entering on the first day of school. National paratroopers let them in some time later.
This inspired desegregation in many other southern schools.

Freedom Rides


People (mostly African Americans) rode wherever they wanted in supposedly desegregated buses.
Tested America's desegregation laws.

Miss American Protests


Many women protested the Miss American contest.
Inspired women to throw away 'feminine values'.

Stonewall Riots


A protest at a gay club led to a police raid and started a riot.
Recognized as one of the most important events in gay history.

Women's Strike for Equality


Strike with many women, about issues such as abortion, etc.
Beginning of great change in second wave of feminism.

Ladies Home Journal Sit-In


Protest (sit in) to stop male magazine writers from depicting women poorly.
Furthered the women's right movement.

Take Back the Night


Protested limited police response to rape and attack in the community.
Made the police protect women.

Harvey Milk (Gay Rights)

1973 - 1977

Harvey Milk was the first openly gay elected senator (San Francisco), was assassinated.
Gay rights movement furthered.

Cold War

Romania in Cold War

1945 - 1990

USSR controlled country, communist government took power.
US didn't want them to be communist, USSR did.

Yugoslavia in Cold War

1945 - 1980

Many different ethnic groups in country. Ruler who kept them together excommunicated in Cold War. When Stalin died, relations between USSR and Yugoslavia improved.
However, the country was split into Bosnia, Slovenia, Croatia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Macedonia.

Berlin Airlift


Delivery of food and supplies to West Berlin when it was being attacked by the Soviets.
Increased tensions between the US and USSR (43 airmen lost).

Gulf of Tonkin Incident


US justifies 'Americanizing' war.
Lead to the lack of faith in the American government.

Operation Menu

1969 - 1970

Bombing of Cambodia.
Caused many strategic and governmental repercussions.

SALT Talks


Talks about missile issues between US and USSR.
Lead to other treaties.

Olympic Boycotts

1980 - 1984

The US and its athletes debated the wisdom in participating in the Olympics held in Moscow.
This caused other countries to consider their involvement as well.

Reykjavík Summit

October 11, 1986 - October 12, 1986

Meeting between US and USSR presidents to discuss missile and SDI issues.
Paved the way for other treaties.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union


Mikhail Gorbachev decided to back out of the arms race and Afghanistan to end the Cold War.
This led to the end of the Cold War.


Kent State Shooting


Many students were killed/injured when protesting Vietnam.
Shocked the world.

Mayday Protests


College students tried to stop government workers from going to work, went to the White House to protest Vietnam. Students were arrested and held for over a day in jail and stadiums.
Caused sympathy (food when students were arrested), semi-violent protests.