*1899- "Transfigured Night"-"Verklhert"- one of the earliest programmatic chamber pieces/ chromatic idiom derived from Tristan
*Studied with Nadia Bouleger/ Wrote "9 Characteristic Pieces" (1970s)/ "A Sept Dances" (1980s)
*1912- Pierrot Lunaire Op. 21- 21 mvts long- violin, viola, flute, cello, clar., piano, and soprano voice.
*used popular dance forms/ Vernor Reinhart (clarinetist) commissioned this work/ Russian parable about a soldier who sells his violin to the devil for a book that will predict the economy/ Written for violin, double bass, clarinet, bsn, tpt, tbn, perc, soldier, devil, narrator, dancer.
*1922- Harmonie Lehre- theory book/ Klangfarbonmelodie-->tone color melody- uproots the idea of harmony, melody, and accomp.
*Uses siren and percussion ensemble.
Silent Woman- Schweik (Jewish librettist)- In a letter to Schweik, he criticized the Nazis. The Nazi's found the letter and Strauss had to stay out of the public for a year.
*Honneger, Poulenc, Millhaud, Duray, Tallefare, Auric/ Got named by Collet arbitrarilly.
*Reaction to the "new-ness" of academic music/ These six were influenced by jazz- made music for use and for the people/ Inflections of charm and humor/ Stark contrast to 2nd Viennese school.
*for platinum flute
*Jesse Owens won a track event in Hitler's presence.
• Gunther Schueller- 3rd stream jazz = jazz and classical music blended/ Former pres. Of New England conservatory/ Composer, conductor, jazz historian – arranged scott Joplin’s rags.
o Form corresponds to march form (introduction, 2 repeated strains, optional intro to trio (made of 2 rep. strains), optional inserted strain (dog fight), modulates at trio.
*Written for Ringling Bros./ Coreographed for elephants/ Quotes Schubert March Militaire.
*wrote for Vienna tpt. choir (12 tpts, 8 tbn, 2 tuba, timpani+percussion/ Divided into 2 antiphonal choirs.
*winds, perc, and electric tape
-Expirmented with wind music/ During this time- Paris Concervatory is beginning to be prominent- extended technical facitlities for wind instruments/ Jadin, Gossec, and Muhal- other composers writing for military band at this time.
-Based off of music by Weber, although he didn't like Weber.
-Paid to commemorate Weber's death.
-studied at Paris Conservatory and Rome/ wrote Faust and Romeo and Juliet
-Wrote for winds his whole life/ Father was horn player- Franz Strauss/ Extended performance demands of brass and woodwinds.
*written before Op.4/ For 13 Winds- octet + 4 hrns. and contrabassoon/ 1 movement, through-composed/ Intended for banquet in Vienna/ Hans von Bulow saw this performance and thought Strauss was suited for writing for winds- this resulted in Suite in Bb, Op.4 (1884)- Features the horn and clarinet, whom he wrote it for.
*Written for 15 tpt., 4 tbn, 4 hrns, 2 tubas, and a timpani/ Sounds like Bruckner/ For Fascist Ball for Knights of St. John.
-Born in Austria/Hungary/ Lived between a bordello and military base- caused a weird upbringing/ Acted as a bridge between Austrian tradition and contemporary music.
*Wrote a song cycle of poetry with 7 movements- Ruckertlieder/ Each movement is for different instruemenation/ Um Mitternacht is for WINDS, HARP, and PIANO + VOICE.
*Father: Goerge Edwards Ives/ Charles learned to think independently – sing in one key and accompany in another key/ Wrote first composition at age 13 – holiday quick step – theater ensemble instrumentation/ By 16, composed 3 marches, 2 survived/ 1894 – went to Yale and studied w/ Horratio Parker (classically trained model)/ Father said “every dissonance doesn’t HAVE to resolve…” / / Wrote Decoration Day, Country Band March, Washington’s Birthday/ TRANSCRIBERS: ELKUS, and SINGLETON
4 sets of bells, glocks, chimes, trumpets and trombone (bucket of dissonance)
o Rhythmically complex
o Bells are played in key of C in octaves, Db, and B
o Atonal brass parts
o Final Irony: 3 sets of bells superimpose a plagal cadence in their own key, while the brass sit on a C tonic w/ a top D in the trumpet
o He never hearded this performed – wasn’t even published till 1965
o At the end of the score, he writes “from the steeples, the bells, then the rocks on the mountains begin to shout!”
o Uses 4th interval
*French composer/ Studied at Paris Conservatory/ Won Prix de Rome @ 19/ Served as music critic for famous paper – Le Temps (the times) – rather controvertial because of his habit of shouting out critics from his seat in the hall/ Wrote symphonies, ballet, sax quartet, wrote Lied and Scherzo for horn and winds – 1910/ Rebelled against impressionism and leaned towards neo-classicism combined w/ rhythmic mentality of Stravinsky.
*Written for Garden Republic band/ big wild public party/ Fast section sounds like Pagan ritualism – composed 2 years before Rite of Spring/ Opening theme sounds like Jaws, chromatic wedge @ beginning =contrary chromatic motion (separate directions)/ Written for people coming out of Paris Conservatory.
*Born in Vienna/ Age 9-played violin and began composing/ Oscar Hadler taught him harmony/ When he was young he followed Brahms tradition/ Influenced by Zemlinksy- feared dissonance.
*1st period- (1894-1907) Brahmsian/ 2nd period- (1908-1922)- Experimental, free atonality/ 3rd period- (1923-death)- 12 tone
*Wrote this 8 years before his death/ Schirmer commissioned it for high school band/ 1st theme=7 measures, Main theme=21 measures long, Tempo=84 (divisible by 7)/ g minor-ish
*Trained in European classical model (teacher was German)/ Born in Texarkana- died of syphillis/ Known for Ragtime – wrote 44 original ragtime pieces, one ballet, 2 operas/ 1976 – awarded Pulitzer Prize/ Traveling musician – black guy = church, bars, brothels, world’s fair in Chicago in the south/ Lived in Missouri, spent time in NY finding producer for his opera.
*Form corresponds to march form (introduction, 2 repeated strains, optional intro to trio (made of 2 rep. strains), optional inserted strain (dog fight), modulates at trio.
*Wrote Dream Sequence (1975)- written for large band- CBDNA commission
*still in a key area, but on the road to antonality.
*German-Jewish composer/ Worked with librettist Brecht/ uses guitar, banjo, piano, perc, and winds/ studied with Busoni/ Best known for stage work (Beggar's Opera, Three Penny Opera, and Mahonony)
*Revised 1938/ For 4 tpt, 2 tbn./ 47 measures long/ Wrote 200 works transcribed for band but they are all lost.
*known as revolutionary of rhythm/ Studied with Korsakov/ Wrote Firebird, Rite of Spring, Petrushka (after Rite of Spring, he thought he had exhasted the orchestra and looked for other mediums/ Collaborated with Cocteau, Diagelev, Picasso, Ballet Russe, Nijensky/ Robert Craft-friend of Stravinksy (resulted in recording and books)/ Eric Walter White book- main reference on Stravinsky/ Ansermet- famous conductor (conducted many performers of his ballets)/ Came in contact with Ravel and Debussy and was viewed as a French composer by 1927.
*Written for cimbolom+winds/ Uses a lot of syncopation.
*Revised in 1947/ Written for Dubussy/ 2 sections-2nd is based on a "Review Musicales" piano piece (chorale)/ Written for 23 winds ( 3 each w.w, 4 hrn, 3 tpt, 3 tbn, tuba)/ Premiered in 1921-Kusaviksy conducted/ Thin scoring (austere ritual.)
*Revised in 1950/ 1st true neo-classical piece of Stravinsky by form+orchestration/ Written for fl, clar, 2 bsn, 2 tpt, 3 tbn/ Filled with counterpoint.
*Several different permutations of this work/ Originally for soprano and piano, but transcribed to different ensembles.
*Student of Schoenberg/ Known for operas Lulu and Wozzeck/ 1926-Lyric Suite.
*For w.w, brass, perc, and siren/ uses 3 note motive to unify mvt./ uses Klangfarbonmelodie/ Uses glissando as melody and most melodies have repeated patterns on the same pitch. (Pointillism)