ib hl history


Congress of Vienna

September 1814

After Napoleon:
Reduce France
Restore monarchies
Establish balance of power

Revolutions of 1848

January 1848 - December 1848

Revolutions in France, Germany, Austria, and Italy

German and Italian Unification

Young Italy formed

July 1831

by Mazzini: a nationalist movement for Italian Youth



Weak initial union of German states.
No tariffs
Common trade policy

Bismarck Appointed


Chief minister in Prussian parliament

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

Russia vs. Britain/France/Turkey
Cavour supported French
Austria was seen as weak
Russia wanted warm water ports
Cavour suggested united Italy, but was ignored

War of 1859

April 1859 - July 1859

France vs. Austria
France and Piedmont Sardinia are allied
Piedmont gains Lombardy

Danish War

February 1864 - October 1864

Germany gained Schleswig
Created nationalistic views

Austro-Prussian War

June 1866 - August 1866

aka 7 weeks war
Declared by Austria
Prussia gained a lot of land

Franco-Prussian War

July 1870 - May 1871

Treaty of Frankfurt made France pay Germany a lot of money
Also Germany gets Alsace-Lorraine

German Empire is formed


William I of Prussia is emperor

May Laws

May 1872

State controls education
Civil Marriage
Pope's power undermined
Priests must go to German universities
Part of kulturkampf



Germany, Austria, Russia
(trying to isolate France)

Congress of Berlin


Trying to prevent a war between Austria and Russia
Russia withdraws from Dreikaiserbund

The Dual Alliance


between Austria and Germany
(scared Russia into staying diplomatically friendly with to Germany)

Social Welfare


"the most advanced social legislation in the world"
sick leave, accident insurance law, old age pension
Trying to gain support of working class

The Reinsurance Treaty


Between Russia and Germany
Promised neutrality

Pope Recognizes Italy


(Angry because he lost the Papal Territories)

World War I

World War I

28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918

World War II


Reign of Alexander II

March 1855 - March 1881

Predecessor: Nicholas I
"The Tsar Liberator"

Emancipation of the Serfs

March 1861

Resulted in more negative effects than positive

Reign of Alexander III

April 1881 - November 1894

"The Reactionary"
(Heavily influenced by Pobedonostsev)

Reign of Nicholas II

November 1894 - March 1917

Last tsar

Russo-Japanese War

February 1904 - September 1905

Humiliating defeat for Russia

Revolution of 1905

22 January 1905 - 16 June 1907

Began on Bloody Sunday
Led to Dumas and constitutional monarchy

Lena Goldfields Massacre


Revolution of 1917

March 1917

Tsar overthrown
Provisional government established

October Revolution

November 1917

Bolsheviks take over

Russian Civil War

November 1917 - October 1922

Whites vs. Reds

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

3 March 1918

Russia lost an enormous amount of land

Assassination of Nicholas II

July 1918

Ordered by Lenin