The Cold War, 1943-75

Main

Tehran Conference

november 28, 1943 - december 1, 1943

Yalta Conference

February 4, 1945 - February 11, 1945

VE Day

May 8, 1945

End of WWII against Germany

End of lend-lease scheme

May 11, 1945

Seen as sudden by USSR, but understandable - war was over

Potsdam Conference

July 17, 1945 - August 2, 1945

Hiroshima

August 6, 1945

Nagasaki

August 9, 1945

VJ Day

September 2, 1945

End of WWII against Japan

Council of Foreign Ministers

September 11, 1945 - October 2, 1945

Lancaster House, London; not so successful

Moscow Conference

December 1945

USA stops German reparations

1946

Paris Peace Treaties

February 10, 1947

Finnish peace with USSR

COMINFORM

September 1947

Soviet-US agreement for Korean troop withdrawal

1949

COMECON

January 1949

NATO

April 4, 1949

Mao visits Moscow

November 1949

Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance

February 14, 1950

Cuban Revolution

July 26, 1953 - January 1, 1959

Korean Armistice

July 27, 1953

Signed along 38th Parallel

Geneva Conference

April 26, 1954 - July 20, 1954

CIA-backed coup of Guatemalan President

June 18, 1954 - June 27, 1954

SEATO

September 8, 1954

Sino-US Mutual Defence Treaty

December 2, 1954

Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955

Austrian State Treaty

May 15, 1955

Geneva Summit

July 18, 1955

Khrushchev visits Britain

April 18, 1956

Sputnik

October 5, 1957

Sputnik II and Laika

November 1957

Khrushchev proposes joint control over PRC's nuclear programme

July 1958

Khrushchev-Mao pool party

August 3, 1958

Mutual voluntary moratorium on nuclear tests

October 1958

Second Berlin Crisis (demands)

November 1958

Khrushchev demands that West leave Berlin

Castro establishes socialist Cuba

January 1, 1959

Batista exiled

January 1959

Khrushchev publicly criticises Great Leap Forward

1959

Khrushchev proposes 'atom-free zone'

January 1959

Castro-Nixon meeting

April 1959

Unsuccessful; Nixon concludes Castro is already a communist

Camp David Summit

September 25, 1959 - September 26, 1959

Soviet-Cuban trade deal

February 1960

Deal nationalised US interests in Cuba that were worth in excess of $1bn

U-2 spy plane incident

May 1, 1960

Paris Summit

May 15, 1960 - May 16, 1960

US economic blockade of Cuba

July 1960

Discoverer starts gathering intel

August 19, 1960

Yuri Gagarin first man in space

April 12, 1961

CIA attack Cuban air fields

April 15, 1961

8 CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban air fields, then returned to USA

Bay of Pigs invasion

April 16, 1961

1,400 lightly-armed anti-Castro Cuban exiles landed at Bay of Pigs, but were quickly forced to retreat

Vienna Summit

June 4, 1961

Kennedy is "ein Berliner!"

July 25, 1961

Kennedy publicly pledges his support for the whole of Berlin

Third Berlin Crisis (wall)

August 1961

Khrushchev erects wall around West Berlin

Operation Mongoose

October 1961

Fourth Berlin Crisis (tanks)

October 27, 1961

USSR arms Cuba

January 1962 - September 1962

With MiG jets, SAM missiles, 24 SS-4 medium-range ballistic missile launchers, and 16 longer-range SS-5 ballistic missile launchers

CIA sabotages in Cuba

January 1962 - July 1962

60,000 acts of sabotage, ranging from murder to arson, carried out in Cuba as part of Operation Mongoose

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14, 1962 - October 28, 1962

Mao criticises CMC

1963

'Hot-line' agreement

June 20, 1963

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

August 5, 1963

Mao calls Khrushchev a 'revisionist'

July 1964

And a bureaucratic "phoney"

End of Sino-Soviet trade and diplomatic relations

March 1966

Nixon relaxes trade/travel restrictions to PRC

July 1969

Secret Nixon-Mao talks

July 1969

Conducted via Pakistan

SALT talks

November 17, 1969 - May 1972

Mao invites US ping-pong team for match

April 1971

An international match in the PRC

USA backs PRC's entry into UN

October 1971

Nixon visits PRC

February 21, 1972 - February 28, 1972

To engage in triangular diplomacy and normalise Sino-US relations

Shanghai Communiqué

February 28, 1972

Moscow Summit

May 22, 1972 - May 30, 1972

USSR agrees to SALT I treaties and Basic Principles Agreement

Interim Agreement

May 26, 1972

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

May 26, 1972

Nixon and Brezhnev sign

OPEC Crisis

October 1973 - March 1974

Apollo-Soyuz link-up

July 17, 1975

Helsinki Accords

August 1, 1975

Ford visits PRC

December 1, 1975 - December 5, 1975

USA

Roosevelt

January 20, 1933 - April 12, 1945

Truman

April 12, 1945 - January 20, 1953

Trinity

July 16, 1945

First ever US nuclear test in Alamagordo, New Mexico

Long Telegram

February 22, 1946

Truman Doctrine

March 1947

Marshall Plan

June 1947

US military spending = $10.9bn

1948

US paper claims no strategic interests in China

August 5, 1949

McCarthyist Red Scare

1950

Acheson announces lack of plans to militarily protect Korea or Taiwan

January 1950

Dean Acheson, US Secretary of State

Truman announces H-Bomb

January 31, 1950

Bomb based on nuclear fusion

NSC-68

April 14, 1950

Ivy Mike

November 1, 1952

Eisenhower

January 20, 1953 - January 20, 1961

Dulles announces 'massive retaliatory power'

January 1954

Castle Bravo

March 1, 1954

Domino Theory

April 1954

Eisenhower advised to use nuclear force to protect Taiwan

September 1954

Eisenhower Doctrine

january 5, 1957

Gaither Report, 'missile gap'

November 7, 1957

Eisenhower increases science and research funding

1958

Explorer launched

January 1958

Polaris launched

January 7, 1960

2-stage SLBM

Kennedy

January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963

McNamara introduces counterforce strategy

1962

Democrats win biggest majority for 20 years

November 7, 1962

Johnson

November 22, 1963 - January 20, 1969

Nixon

January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974

Kissinger >> US Secretary of State

September 1973

Ford

August 9, 1974 - January 20, 1977

Carter

January 20, 1977 - January 20, 1981

USSR

Stalin

January 1, 1924 - March 5, 1953

Supreme Soviet, Stalin abandons peace

February 9, 1946

Novikov's Telegram

September 27, 1946

Molotov Plan

July 1947

Soviet military spending = $13.1bn

1948

RDS-1

August 29, 1949

First Soviet nuclear test at Semipalatinsk, Kazakh SSR

Khrushchev scales down Red Army

1950 - 1960

Malenkov

march 5, 1953 - february 8, 1955

Beria removed from Soviet leadership

June 26, 1953

New Course

August 1953

Joe 4

August 8, 1953

First lithium bomb

Soviets test H-Bomb in Kazakhstan

August 12, 1953

Khrushchev >> First Secretary of Soviet Communist Party

September 12, 1953

USSR adopts 'massive retaliatory power' policy

1955

Khrushchev

February 8, 1955 - October 14, 1964

RDS-37

November 22, 1955

Khrushchev's Secret Speech

February 1956

Khrushchev denounces Stalin and Stalinism in 'secret speech' at Twentieth Party Congress meeting

Successful Soviet test of first ever ICBM

May 1957

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile delivery system

Khrushchev announces new doctrine

1961

USSR resumes atmospheric tests

August 1961

USA soon followed suit with underground and atmospheric detonations

Tsar Bomba

October 30, 1961

Biggest bomb ever detonated, but USSR could not mass-produce these bombs, so not so significant for arms race as magnitude would suggest

Brezhnev

October 14, 1964 - November 10, 1982

PRC

China >> Communism

October 1, 1949

People's Republic of China

October 1, 1949

Dulles refuses to shake Enlai's hand

1954

Khrushchev humiliated by Mao in PRC

October 2, 1959

7-hour discussion

Khrushchev withdraws Russian experts from GLF

July 1960

Chinese A-Bomb

October 16, 1964

At Lop Nor, Vietnam

Mao outlines Cultural Revolution

1965

Chines allies limited by Cultural Revolution

1969

Limited to France, Pakistan and Albania

Kissinger secretly visits PRC

July 1971

As Nixon's National Security Adviser; arranges Presidential visit for following year

UK

Iron Curtain speech

March 5, 1946

Given at university in Fulton, Missouri by Winston Churchill

UK adopts 'massive retaliatory power' policy

1957

Germany

Trizonia co-operation

1947

Western discussions on West German administration

February 1948

Western agreement on one West German state

June 1948

Deutschmark introduced in FRG

June 20, 1948

Berlin Blockade

June 28, 1948 - May 12, 1949

Federal Republic of Germany

May 23, 1949

German Democratic Republic

October 7, 1949

GDR >> COMECON

1950

Workers' rising in East Berlin

June 17, 1953

Hallstein Doctrine

1955 - 1970

Western powers reject East-West German talks

September 1958

Willy Brandt >> West German chancellor

January 1969

Basic Treaty

December 21, 1972

Signed by FRG and GDR, thereby accepting each other as separate states

Eastern Europe

Romania >> Communism

February 1945

Yugoslavia >> Communism

November 11, 1945

Rigged elections lead to Communist takeover of Yugoslavia

Czecho-Hungarian free elections

1946

Albania >> Communism

January 1946

Greek Civil War

September 10, 1946 - October 16, 1949

Bulgaria >> Communism

October 1946

Poland >> Communism

January 1947

Franco-Italian destabilisation campaigns

1947 - 1948

Poland >> Communism

January 1947

Hungary >> Communism

August 1947

Rigged elections lead to Communist takeover of Hungary

Czechoslovakia >> Communism

February 1948

Albania >> COMECON

February 1949

Khrushchev recognises and restores relations with Tito's Yugoslavia

1955

Death of Stalinist Polish leader, Boleslaw Bierut

March 12, 1956

Calls for Polish liberalisation

Demonstrations in Poznan, Poland

June 28, 1956 - June 30, 1956

Nagy becomes Premier of Hungary

July 1956

Nagy was an anti-Stalinist communist

Khrushchev >> Poland, gives Gomulka power

October 1956

Protests in Hungary

October 1956

Inspired by uprising and mild success thereof in Poland

Red Army tanks enter Budapest

November 4, 1956

Janos Kadar replaces Nagy as Hungarian Premier

November 11, 1956

Asia

First Indochina War

December 16, 1946 - August 1, 1954

Stalin permisses NK invasion of SK

April 1950

NK army pushes south, takes Seoul

June 1950 - August 1950

Korean War

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

UN Security Council recommends military assistance for SK (ROK)

June 27, 1950

MacArthur + UN >> SK

September 1950

UN push NK to 38th Parallel

September 30, 1950

UN takes Pyongyang

October 19, 1950

China enters Korean War

October 25, 1950

PRC + NK push UN back to 38th Parallel

November 1950 - December 1950

US use nuclear threat to stop Chinese bombing of Quemoy and Matsu

1954 - 1955

First Taiwan Straits Crisis

September 3, 1954 - May 1, 1955

Communist guerrillas against Ngo Din Diem

1958 - 1959

Second Taiwan Straits Crisis

August 23, 1958 - September 22, 1958

PRC begin 2nd Taiwanese bombardment

September 1958

Sino-Indonesian disputes

1959 - 1962

USSR supported Indonesia

North Vietnam establish Vietcong

1960

(National Liberation Front)

Chinese beat Russians to Mt. Everest

May 1960

Sino-Indian War

October 20, 1962 - November 21, 1962

Ussuri River Crisis

March 2, 1969 - September 18, 1969

Red Guards occupy Damanskii

March 2, 1969

Soviet counter-attack at Damanskii

March 15, 1969

Mutual border recognition >> crisis averted

September 18, 1969

Middle East

Iran Crisis

March 1946

CIA installs Pahlavi as Shah of Iran

August 15, 1953 - August 19, 1953

Produced US ally on Soviet border