Activity 1: Alaska Timeline

Education, the Land, and the People.

People

Alaska's European discover is at hand

1725

Tsar Peter commissioned a naval expedition to explore Pacific waters north and east of Kamchatka. He wanted to know if Asia and North America were joined by land, to determine the extent of Spain's control in the Pacific, and to extend Russia's power into the New World.

Bering concludes that Asia and North America were not joined

1728

Russian fur merchants begin to arrive

1740

Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov set sail for Alaska

June 1741

This is Bering's second expedition in search of Alaska.

Vitus Bering claims Alaska for Russia

July 1741

Aleut population is thought to have been between 12,000-15,000 people.

Bering dies of Scurvy

December 8, 1741

Captain Cook reaches what we know today as Cook Inlet

May, 1778

British Captain James Cook sails north under order to find an ice free passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic.

Russian fur trade becomes the richest fur enterprise in the world

1780

Russians encounter Tlingit Native Alaskans

1783

First white settlement in Alaska on Kodiak Island

1784

Alexander Barnov hired to run Russian America's dominant fur trading company

1790

Baranov seemed the unlikely choice to run the Russia America's fur trading company given his failed company in Siberia. However, due to his aggressiveness and tough political skills, the empire prevailed.

George Vancouver chartered the Inside Passage

1791 - 1795

Vancouver became the first European to sight Mt. Foraker and Mt. McKinley from the area we know now as Cook Inlet.

Alexander Baranov establishes citadel in Sitka Bay

1799

Baranov was also named first Russian governor in 1799

Aleut males forced to work for the Russian-American Company

1799 - 1867

All Aleut males between the ages of 15-50 had to work for the Russian-American fur trading company, which monopolized the administration and exploitation of the colony.

Russian ships use Aleut hunters to hunt sea otters

1800

Aleut hunters were used by the Russians to hunt sea otters as far south as Baja, California.

Aleut population decreases significantly due to European influence

1800

Due to the introduction of small pox, measles, liquor, and fire arms by the Europeans, the Aleut population (as well as other Native groups like the Haida of the southeast) was found to be near 2,000; a reduction of 10,000-13,000 people.

Baranov dies of fever en route to St. Petersburg

April 12, 1819

Baranov was known as "Lord of Alaska" because he helped Russia tap the New World's riches.

Russian agents establish an Interior fur trade in southwest Alaska

1820

Athabascans of the region became contract trappers employed by the Russian-American Company.

Russian navy bars all foreign ships from Alaskan waters

1821

Father Ivan Veniaminov travels as a missionary to Unalaska

1824

Veniaminov respected local traditions and taught that Natives must receive Christian doctrine in their own tongue. Father Veniaminov preached in Aleut, prepared an Aleut dictionary, and grammar, laying the foundations of literacy among the Aleut people.

Russian agents establish an Interior fur trade in southwest Alaska

1830

The Athabascans did well due to their traditions of mobility and solitary hardiness.

Veniaminov moves to Sitka to continue his work

1834

Veniaminov gains the trust of the Tlingit Natives by inoculating them against a small pox epidemic in 1836.

American and French ships search for right whales

1835

American and French ships sail north in search of whales due to the decline in numbers in the southern Pacific and Atlantic.

U.S. and England obtain training privileges in Alaska

1835

Veniaminov named Bishop

1841

Veniaminov was named the Innocent, Bishop of Kamchatka, the Kurile, and the Aleutian Islands". Soon after, a Cathedral and Bishop House was built in Sitka. Also in 1841, Vieniamnov, along with Aleut leader Ivan Pan'kov designed the Aleut alphabet.

Yankee Whalers begin commercial whaling in Alaskan waters

1848

With the invasion came more fire arms, liquor, illness, and cash economy to the Inupiat Natives.

Last shot of Civil War fired in Alaskan waters

1865

U.S. purchases Alaska

April 4, 1867

William H. Seward predicts Alaska should be admitted to union as separate states

1869

Due to the size of Alaska, Secretary of State Seward predicts that the region might have to be admitted to the Union as several separate states. Today, some Alaska residents-far removed from the hub of state government in Juneau-might complain that his advice should've been followed.

First fish canneries built

1878

Veniaminov dies

1879

Eleven years earlier, Veniaminov was named Metropolitan of Moscow, head of the entire Russian Church.

First major Gold strike- Gold Creek (present day Juneau)

1880

French-Canadian Joe Juneau and partner Richard Harris were led to the site by Chief Kowee of the Auk Tlingit clan.

John Muir's 800-mile canoe trip helped inaugurate Alaska tourism

1883

John Muir is the founder of Sierra Club. By 1890 some 25,000 sightseers had traveled the upper Inside Passage.

First Organic Act

1884

This act brought civil government to the last frontier, providing a district governor (presidentially appointed), that paved the way for a second reform of 1912, which made Alaska a U.S. territory with its own legislature.

Lt. Henry Allen completes a 1,500 mile journey in one season

March 29, 1885

Lt. Henry Allen crosses the Copper River's headwaters, then descends the Tanana River to the Yukon, then downriver to the Bering Sea. It was called the "greatest act of American exploration since Lewis and Clark crossed the Louisiana Purchase to reach the Pacific".

Tsimshian Natives arrive in Alaska

1887

Led by Anglican lay-minister William Duncan, members of this group moved to Annette Island.

Population boom: 30,000-60,000

1890 - 1900

Due to the Gold Rush, the population of Alaska grew significantly in a decade.

Homestead Act extended to Alaska

1898

The "Alaska Syndicate" is formed by J.P. Morgan and the Guggenheim brothers

1908

J.P. Morgan and the Guggenheim brothers buy out Stephen Birch in order to build Alaska's first copper mine.

Organized sled dog racing began in Nome

1908

Judge James Wickersham elected as nonvoting delegate

1908

Wickersham serves as the region's voice in D.C.

1909 - 1921

Sourdough Expedition

March, 1910

Untrained and with no climbing experience, Tom Lloyd and six partners set off in the dead of winter. They did not reach the summit of Denali, they reached it's north peak (850 feet lower), but their exploit alone is still considered one of moutaineering's most astonishing feats.

"Home Rule" act of 1912 wins territorial status

1912

Under the law, Alaskans were finally allowed to elect a territorial legislature. Women in Alaska were granted to vote the following year, 1913.

Alaska Native Brotherhood founded

1912

First true summit of Mt. Denali

1913

Hudson Stuck and three friends, including Stuck's Native sled driver, Walter Harper.

The Alaska Railroad is born- 400 miles from Seward to through the AK range

1915 - 1923

First bill for Alaska statehood drafted

1916

Wickersham establishes Denali National Park

1917

In the same year, Wickersham establishes the creation of the Agricultural College and School of Mines in Fairbanks (now the University of Alaska).

Jones Act

1920

Roy Jones makes the first flight up the Inside Passage

1922

Since the 1920s, Alaska has been in love with the airplane. Roy Jones flew from Seattle to Ketchikan, landing in the Tongass Narrows.

All Alaska Natives are granted citizenship

1924

From 1867 onward, the government pledged to protect Native rights. Sadly, such promises were often largely a dead letter well into the 20th century.

Mushing captures world headlines during a diphtheria epidemic in Nome

1925

Life-saving antitoxin was delivered by dogsled relay in five and 1/2 days from the railhead in Nenana, 674 miles away.

First polar flight from America to Europe

1928

Carl Ben Eielson and George Hubert Wilkins flew from Barrow to Spitsbergen, Norway.

Matanuska colonists arrive at Palmer station

1935

During the Great Depression, the federal government invited people from poor rural areas of the northern Midwest to help found an agricultural colony. The government promised land for as little as $5 an acre, and offered free transportation from the Lower 48 and housing for the colonists.

Indian Organization Act includes Alaska Native governments

1936

First military bases lend-lease activities; Alaska highway completed

1939 - 1945

President Roosevelt authorizes construction of the Alcan

February 11, 1942

Alaska Canada Military Highway (Alcan)

Japanese fleet launches raid on Dutch Harbor

June 3, 1942

Japanese troops land on Attu and Kiska

June 7, 1942

11,000 American troops land on Attu

May 11, 1943

Alaska law ends legal segregation

1945

Alaska Canada Military Highway (Alcan) opens to the public

1948

Statehood bill passed through House of Representatives

1950

Due largely to the efforts of Alaska's nonvoting delegate to congress, E.L. "Bob" Bartlett, a statehood bill passed for the first time in the House or Representatives.

Constitution written and approved

1956

The Marine Highway System is developed

1963

The Marine Highway System, developed by the state's Department of Transportation to serve the ports of southeastern and southwestern Alaska.

AK Federation of Natives formed in Anchorage

1966

First Iditarod Race successfully staged

February, 1967

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

1971

President Nixon signs the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

December 18, 1971

According to the law, Natives receive title to 44 million acres- over 10 percent of the state. The landmark act also awarded Natives $962.5 million in compensation. All U.S. citizens of at least 1/4 Alaska Native ancestry born after December 18th, 1971, were eligible for benefits.

Construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

1974 - 1977

Congress adopts the Magnuson Act

1976

The Magnuson Act created a 200-mile off-shore zone under strict U.S. control in order to regulate commercial fishing from foreign vessels.

The Alaska Permanent Fund is created

1976

The oil boom fueled a huge increase in state spending, making possible the creation of a state-managed, public trust fund. The PFD started annual dividends in 1982.

AK moves to AK standard time

1983

State purchases railroad from the federal government

1985

Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound

1989

Senator Ted Stevens named "Alaskan of the Century"

1999

Land

Bogoslof ("theologian") Island is born

1796

On St. John's Day, officials of the Russian-American Company witness a volcanic eruption in the Bering Sea.

Anglo-Russian treaty establishes Alaska's borders

1825

Mining Act of 1872, land claims rights

1872

First important gold find in the Interior: Forty-Mile River

1886

Reindeer Imported

1891

Klondike Gold Rush and founding of Dawson City

1896

The find by George Washington Carmack, Skookum Jim, and Tagish Charlie led to the founding of Dawson City.

Gold found in Nome

1898

Capital established in Juneau

1900

Gold found in the hills of Tanana Valley-Fairbanks gets its name

1902

A trading post was established on the Chena River, a tributary of the Tanana. Its boosters named it Fairbanks, after Indiana Senator Charles Fairbanks, who later became Teddy Roosevelt's VP.

Adjudication of Alaska-Canada border in southeast Alaska

1903

Juneau replaces Sitka as the state's capital

1906

From 1880-1890, Juneau's mines produced over $17 million in gold, trumping Sitka's fur industry.

Preservation of American Antiquities Act passed

1906

An Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities was passed by the U. S. Congress on June 8, 1906. (34 STAT.L.225) It provides penalties for the removal, defacement, etc. of antiquities on ground controlled by the Federal Government such as the National Parks, Monuments and Forests of Alaska. Fines of $500 and/or 6 months imprisonment are provided. (AFTC)

Secretary of the Interior allots homesteads to the Natives of AK

1906

An Act Authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to allot homesteads to the Natives of Alaska

Tongass and Chugach National Forest established

1907

Copper mining begins

1911

Alaska is made a U.S. territory

1912

Novarupta vent beneath Mt. Katmai errupts

June 6, 1912

People in Juneau, 750 miles away, head the blast, and sulfuric fumes reached south to Vancouver, BC.

Anchorage is born

1915

One year prior, surveyors traveled north to study routes for the Alaska railroad. Woodrow Wilson ruled in favor of extending the existing Alaska Central track.

Katmai named as National Park and Preserve

1918

Between 1915-1919, botanist Robert Fiske Griggs led four expeditions into Katmai. Due to the vast basin of sulfur vents that looked like ash-covered moonscape, he nicknamed the area "Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes." It was Griggs' reports to the National Geographic Society that led to President Wilson's declaration as a national monument.

The Tongass Timber Act

1947

The Venetie and Arctic Village Reservation is formed, the largest in Alaska.

1948

Alaska joins the union as the 49th state

January 3, 1959

Alaska was the first new state since Arizona in 1912, eight months ahead of Hawaii.

Alaska Natives protest "Project Chariot"

1961

Alaska Natives organize to protest "Project Chariot" - a plan to use nuclear weapons to blast an artificial harbor into existence in Northwest Alaska.

Good Friday Earthquake

March 27, 1964

Oil discovered in Prudhoe Bay

1968

Atlantic Richfield geologists discover a field with a capacity approaching 10 billion barrels- the country's greatest oil find.

North Slope oil ease sale brings $900 million

1969

Marine Mammal Protection Act becomes law

1972

The Marine Mammal Protection Act becomes law with the important provision that Alaska Native would be able to continue traditional use of marine mammals.

Alaska National Interest Lands and Conservation Act (ANILCA) passed by Congress

1980

This law helped settle land claims by the state and Natives related to statehood in 1959 and the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971.

Berger Launches ANCSA Hearings

1984

Amendments to ANCSA take affect

1991

50th anniversary of statehood

2009

Education

First mission school for Eskimos at Nushagak

1835

First Gospel printed in Aleut

1840

Petropavlovsk Seminary relocated in Sitka-renamed the New Archangel Seminary

1845

The New Archangel Seminary opened with 54 students, three teachers, and a library. 23 of the students were Alaska Natives and the curriculum included six years of Native languages- Aleut, Tlingit, and Yupik.

New Archangel Seminary transferred to Yakutsk

1858

The move from Sitka to Yakutsk was made to strengthen the missionary effort in that area.

Second mission school at Kwikpak

1860

Churches filled public education gap with missionary schools

1867 - 1884

From 1867-1884, Alaska had a barely existing civic government. Jackson became convinced that Natives could only be sheltered from liquor and exploitation via wholesale political and educational reform for whites and Natives alike.

Church-based schools established throughout Alaska

1867

The Swedish Evangelical, Moravian, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Congregational, and Roman Catholic Churches establish schools throughout Alaska

First appropriation from Congress for education in the Territory

1869

The funds were never put into use as no agency was found to administer them.

First school in Alaska established at Three Saints Bay-Kodiak Island

1874

First School in Alaska established by the Russians at Three Saints Bay-Kodiak Island.

Sheldon Jackson founds missionary school at Wrangell

1877

Along with Jackson were Amanda R. McFarland, a white lay worker, and Sarah Dickinson. Dickinson was a Tongass Tlingit Native woman that translated for S. Hall Young and was educated by William Duncan, and later became a Christian educator so as to help their people face the challenges visited on them.

Tillie Kinnon and Louis Francis Paul commissioned to open a school in Klukwan

1882

The couple was commissioned by the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions to open a school in Klukwan, 30 miles from the Willards' mission where Sarah Dickinson was a translator/teacher.

Funds for education in Alaska appropriated

1884

Funds for education in Alaska appropriated to be distributed among the existing mission schools

Sheldon Jackson named federal education agent for Alaska

1885

For the next 20 years, Jackson's goal was to protect young Natives within a framework of law and, through education, prepare them to cope with modern times.

Use of English in Indian schools

1887

Society of Friends establish a school at Kotzebue

1887

Board of Education in AK directed to give course study for all gov't schools

1888

The Board of Education in Alaska was directed to prescribe a course of study for all government schools.

Supplemental Report on Indian Education

1889

Tillie Paul made assistant matron at the Sitka Industrial Training School

1890

Frances Willard as assistant teacher at the Sitka Industrial Training School

1890

Frances (Fannie) Willard, a Tlingit woman whom missionaries named for the famous Presbyterian worker active in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

Federal Bureau of Education took over most mission schools

1894

Subsidizing of mission schools discontinued. Federal Bureau of Education took over most mission schools.

Local communities authorized to set up school boards.

1899

Local school board established at Nome

1902

First school opens in Fairbanks

1904

Nelson Act establishes school for white children

1905

First teachers' conference held in Juneau

1908

Alaska School Service develops course of study for schools of AK

1911

The Alaska School Service developed a tentative course of study for the schools of Alaska.

First boarding schools established by Catholic, Moravian, and Lutheran Churches

1917 - 1919

1917-1919 The first boarding schools established by Catholic, Moravian, and Lutheran Churches. Federal boarding school was established at White Mountain.

U.S. government closes the Orthodox school on St. Paul Island by force

1921

This was a significant act in what the Orthodox perceive as a government-sponsored and supported campaign against Orthodox and Native culture in Alaska. This suppression of Orthodox and Native culture teachings would continue without letup until the 1970s.

Boarding school at White Mountain renamed "Industrial School"

1926

A policy and programming of industrial training for boarding pupils was initiated.

K-8 more formal course of study produced

1926

A more formal and permanent course of study for the first eight grades in Alaska

Benny Benson creates Alaska state flag

October, 1926

The American Legion, Department of Alaska, announced a contest in school grades 7-12 to design a flag for Alaska. Benny Benson’s design was winner in a field of 142 and in May, 1927 The Territorial Legislature made it official. Benny received $1,000 which he spent on his education and an inscribed watch which later he gave to the State Museum.

Tillie Paul Tamaree made an elder

1930

After the Presbyterian General Assembly held in Cincinnati in 1930 declared women eligible to be elected church elders, the Native Presbyterian Church of Wrangell made Tillie Paul Tamaree an elder. Thus she became one of the first women in the U.S. to hold such a position.

Federal Bureau of Education moves to Juneau from Seattle

1930

Federal Bureau of Education field administrative headquarters moved from Seattle, Wash. to Juneau, Alaska

Alaska Indian Service established

1931

Control of education among the Natives of Alaska was transferred to the Office of Indian Affairs. Became known as the Alaska Indian Service.

Wrangell Institute Boarding School opened - Alaska Indian Service School.

1932

An Act establishing February 16 as "Elizabeth Peratrovich Day"

1945

Elizabeth grew up with them in Petersburg and Ketchikan, Alaska. She attended Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, and the Western College of Education in Bellingham, Washington (now part of Western Washington University).

Mt. Edgecumbe opens as a boarding school for Alaska Natives

1947

Mt. Edgecumbe, a former military installation is opened as a boarding school for Alaska Natives, operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Johnson O'Malley Act

1950

Johnson O'Malley Act provides for the transfer of schools in Alaska to the administrative control of the Territory.

Education specialists placed in district offices

1955

to improve consultant services to teachers.

First edition of "We Teach in Alaska" issued for BIA teachers

1957

First edition of "We Teach in Alaska" issued to provide a manual for BIA teachers in Alaska's remote schools.

First area-wide-in-service training program held

1958

First area-wide in-service training program for Principal-Teachers emphasizing community relations and development of Native leadership.

First secondary level program in a BIA day school established

1960

First secondary level program in a BIA day school established with opening of 9th grade at Unalakleet.

Tundra Times is born

1962

The Tundra Times established, the first state wide newspaper devoted to representing the views and issues of Alaska Natives.

Complete school lunch provisions established

1962

Supplemental nutrition program changed to provide complete school lunch. Agreement that education is a State and local responsibility.

First report: "An Overall Education Plan for Rural Alaska" issued

1963

Governor's Committee issues first report entitled "An Overall Education Plan for Rural Alaska" as a basis for cooperative relationship of BIA and State of Alaska.

English as a second language area-wide workshop

1964

Area-wide workshop for primary teachers with emphasis on teaching English to children as a second language.

William E. Belz School opens- first state-operated boarding high school

1966

William E. Beltz School opens as first State-operated regional boarding high school. Teacher aides provided in BIA day schools. Special education program introduced at Hooper Bay.

Area-wide workshop on linguistic teaching methods for ESL

1967

Area-wide workshop for all education personnel emphasizing the linguistic method in teaching English as a Second language.

Advisory School Boards established.

1967

Kindergarten program initiated

1968

Educational TV available in Barrow Day School

1969

School Boards contract for instruction in cultural and linguistic heritage

Bilingual education inaugurated at primary level

1970

Full high school program at Kotzebue Community School established

Mt. Edgecumbe-Wrangell Parent School Board established

1971

Bureau's first pre-school programs for 2- and 3-year-olds. Administration of program funding at Agency level established.

Tobeluk vs. Lind settled

1976

The so-called "Molly Hootch" (Tobeluk vs. Lind) case is settled with the commitment by the state to provide local schools for Alaska Native communities as it had in predominately white communities in the state.

Rural Education Attendance Areas are created for rural Alaska

1976

Modeled in many respects on the urban school districts in state with the allowance of local school boards to set many policies in their schools.

Bilingual Conference in Anchorage

1981

Stephen E. Cotton re-caps Molly Hootch Case and Native education programs

1984

Anchorage adopts Common Core State Standards

2012