Education, the Land, and the People.
Tsar Peter commissioned a naval expedition to explore Pacific waters north and east of Kamchatka. He wanted to know if Asia and North America were joined by land, to determine the extent of Spain's control in the Pacific, and to extend Russia's power into the New World.
This is Bering's second expedition in search of Alaska.
Aleut population is thought to have been between 12,000-15,000 people.
British Captain James Cook sails north under order to find an ice free passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
Baranov seemed the unlikely choice to run the Russia America's fur trading company given his failed company in Siberia. However, due to his aggressiveness and tough political skills, the empire prevailed.
Vancouver became the first European to sight Mt. Foraker and Mt. McKinley from the area we know now as Cook Inlet.
Baranov was also named first Russian governor in 1799
All Aleut males between the ages of 15-50 had to work for the Russian-American fur trading company, which monopolized the administration and exploitation of the colony.
Aleut hunters were used by the Russians to hunt sea otters as far south as Baja, California.
Due to the introduction of small pox, measles, liquor, and fire arms by the Europeans, the Aleut population (as well as other Native groups like the Haida of the southeast) was found to be near 2,000; a reduction of 10,000-13,000 people.
Baranov was known as "Lord of Alaska" because he helped Russia tap the New World's riches.
Athabascans of the region became contract trappers employed by the Russian-American Company.
Veniaminov respected local traditions and taught that Natives must receive Christian doctrine in their own tongue. Father Veniaminov preached in Aleut, prepared an Aleut dictionary, and grammar, laying the foundations of literacy among the Aleut people.
The Athabascans did well due to their traditions of mobility and solitary hardiness.
Veniaminov gains the trust of the Tlingit Natives by inoculating them against a small pox epidemic in 1836.
American and French ships sail north in search of whales due to the decline in numbers in the southern Pacific and Atlantic.
Veniaminov was named the Innocent, Bishop of Kamchatka, the Kurile, and the Aleutian Islands". Soon after, a Cathedral and Bishop House was built in Sitka. Also in 1841, Vieniamnov, along with Aleut leader Ivan Pan'kov designed the Aleut alphabet.
With the invasion came more fire arms, liquor, illness, and cash economy to the Inupiat Natives.
Due to the size of Alaska, Secretary of State Seward predicts that the region might have to be admitted to the Union as several separate states. Today, some Alaska residents-far removed from the hub of state government in Juneau-might complain that his advice should've been followed.
Eleven years earlier, Veniaminov was named Metropolitan of Moscow, head of the entire Russian Church.
French-Canadian Joe Juneau and partner Richard Harris were led to the site by Chief Kowee of the Auk Tlingit clan.
John Muir is the founder of Sierra Club. By 1890 some 25,000 sightseers had traveled the upper Inside Passage.
This act brought civil government to the last frontier, providing a district governor (presidentially appointed), that paved the way for a second reform of 1912, which made Alaska a U.S. territory with its own legislature.
Lt. Henry Allen crosses the Copper River's headwaters, then descends the Tanana River to the Yukon, then downriver to the Bering Sea. It was called the "greatest act of American exploration since Lewis and Clark crossed the Louisiana Purchase to reach the Pacific".
Led by Anglican lay-minister William Duncan, members of this group moved to Annette Island.
Due to the Gold Rush, the population of Alaska grew significantly in a decade.
J.P. Morgan and the Guggenheim brothers buy out Stephen Birch in order to build Alaska's first copper mine.
Untrained and with no climbing experience, Tom Lloyd and six partners set off in the dead of winter. They did not reach the summit of Denali, they reached it's north peak (850 feet lower), but their exploit alone is still considered one of moutaineering's most astonishing feats.
Under the law, Alaskans were finally allowed to elect a territorial legislature. Women in Alaska were granted to vote the following year, 1913.
Hudson Stuck and three friends, including Stuck's Native sled driver, Walter Harper.
In the same year, Wickersham establishes the creation of the Agricultural College and School of Mines in Fairbanks (now the University of Alaska).
Since the 1920s, Alaska has been in love with the airplane. Roy Jones flew from Seattle to Ketchikan, landing in the Tongass Narrows.
From 1867 onward, the government pledged to protect Native rights. Sadly, such promises were often largely a dead letter well into the 20th century.
Life-saving antitoxin was delivered by dogsled relay in five and 1/2 days from the railhead in Nenana, 674 miles away.
Carl Ben Eielson and George Hubert Wilkins flew from Barrow to Spitsbergen, Norway.
During the Great Depression, the federal government invited people from poor rural areas of the northern Midwest to help found an agricultural colony. The government promised land for as little as $5 an acre, and offered free transportation from the Lower 48 and housing for the colonists.
Alaska Canada Military Highway (Alcan)
Due largely to the efforts of Alaska's nonvoting delegate to congress, E.L. "Bob" Bartlett, a statehood bill passed for the first time in the House or Representatives.
The Marine Highway System, developed by the state's Department of Transportation to serve the ports of southeastern and southwestern Alaska.
According to the law, Natives receive title to 44 million acres- over 10 percent of the state. The landmark act also awarded Natives $962.5 million in compensation. All U.S. citizens of at least 1/4 Alaska Native ancestry born after December 18th, 1971, were eligible for benefits.
The Magnuson Act created a 200-mile off-shore zone under strict U.S. control in order to regulate commercial fishing from foreign vessels.
The oil boom fueled a huge increase in state spending, making possible the creation of a state-managed, public trust fund. The PFD started annual dividends in 1982.
On St. John's Day, officials of the Russian-American Company witness a volcanic eruption in the Bering Sea.
The find by George Washington Carmack, Skookum Jim, and Tagish Charlie led to the founding of Dawson City.
A trading post was established on the Chena River, a tributary of the Tanana. Its boosters named it Fairbanks, after Indiana Senator Charles Fairbanks, who later became Teddy Roosevelt's VP.
From 1880-1890, Juneau's mines produced over $17 million in gold, trumping Sitka's fur industry.
An Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities was passed by the U. S. Congress on June 8, 1906. (34 STAT.L.225) It provides penalties for the removal, defacement, etc. of antiquities on ground controlled by the Federal Government such as the National Parks, Monuments and Forests of Alaska. Fines of $500 and/or 6 months imprisonment are provided. (AFTC)
An Act Authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to allot homesteads to the Natives of Alaska
People in Juneau, 750 miles away, head the blast, and sulfuric fumes reached south to Vancouver, BC.
One year prior, surveyors traveled north to study routes for the Alaska railroad. Woodrow Wilson ruled in favor of extending the existing Alaska Central track.
Between 1915-1919, botanist Robert Fiske Griggs led four expeditions into Katmai. Due to the vast basin of sulfur vents that looked like ash-covered moonscape, he nicknamed the area "Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes." It was Griggs' reports to the National Geographic Society that led to President Wilson's declaration as a national monument.
Alaska was the first new state since Arizona in 1912, eight months ahead of Hawaii.
Alaska Natives organize to protest "Project Chariot" - a plan to use nuclear weapons to blast an artificial harbor into existence in Northwest Alaska.
Atlantic Richfield geologists discover a field with a capacity approaching 10 billion barrels- the country's greatest oil find.
The Marine Mammal Protection Act becomes law with the important provision that Alaska Native would be able to continue traditional use of marine mammals.
This law helped settle land claims by the state and Natives related to statehood in 1959 and the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971.
The New Archangel Seminary opened with 54 students, three teachers, and a library. 23 of the students were Alaska Natives and the curriculum included six years of Native languages- Aleut, Tlingit, and Yupik.
The move from Sitka to Yakutsk was made to strengthen the missionary effort in that area.
From 1867-1884, Alaska had a barely existing civic government. Jackson became convinced that Natives could only be sheltered from liquor and exploitation via wholesale political and educational reform for whites and Natives alike.
The Swedish Evangelical, Moravian, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Congregational, and Roman Catholic Churches establish schools throughout Alaska
The funds were never put into use as no agency was found to administer them.
First School in Alaska established by the Russians at Three Saints Bay-Kodiak Island.
Along with Jackson were Amanda R. McFarland, a white lay worker, and Sarah Dickinson. Dickinson was a Tongass Tlingit Native woman that translated for S. Hall Young and was educated by William Duncan, and later became a Christian educator so as to help their people face the challenges visited on them.
The couple was commissioned by the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions to open a school in Klukwan, 30 miles from the Willards' mission where Sarah Dickinson was a translator/teacher.
Funds for education in Alaska appropriated to be distributed among the existing mission schools
For the next 20 years, Jackson's goal was to protect young Natives within a framework of law and, through education, prepare them to cope with modern times.
The Board of Education in Alaska was directed to prescribe a course of study for all government schools.
Frances (Fannie) Willard, a Tlingit woman whom missionaries named for the famous Presbyterian worker active in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.
Subsidizing of mission schools discontinued. Federal Bureau of Education took over most mission schools.
The Alaska School Service developed a tentative course of study for the schools of Alaska.
1917-1919 The first boarding schools established by Catholic, Moravian, and Lutheran Churches. Federal boarding school was established at White Mountain.
This was a significant act in what the Orthodox perceive as a government-sponsored and supported campaign against Orthodox and Native culture in Alaska. This suppression of Orthodox and Native culture teachings would continue without letup until the 1970s.
A policy and programming of industrial training for boarding pupils was initiated.
A more formal and permanent course of study for the first eight grades in Alaska
The American Legion, Department of Alaska, announced a contest in school grades 7-12 to design a flag for Alaska. Benny Benson’s design was winner in a field of 142 and in May, 1927 The Territorial Legislature made it official. Benny received $1,000 which he spent on his education and an inscribed watch which later he gave to the State Museum.
After the Presbyterian General Assembly held in Cincinnati in 1930 declared women eligible to be elected church elders, the Native Presbyterian Church of Wrangell made Tillie Paul Tamaree an elder. Thus she became one of the first women in the U.S. to hold such a position.
Federal Bureau of Education field administrative headquarters moved from Seattle, Wash. to Juneau, Alaska
Control of education among the Natives of Alaska was transferred to the Office of Indian Affairs. Became known as the Alaska Indian Service.
Elizabeth grew up with them in Petersburg and Ketchikan, Alaska. She attended Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, and the Western College of Education in Bellingham, Washington (now part of Western Washington University).
Mt. Edgecumbe, a former military installation is opened as a boarding school for Alaska Natives, operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Johnson O'Malley Act provides for the transfer of schools in Alaska to the administrative control of the Territory.
to improve consultant services to teachers.
First edition of "We Teach in Alaska" issued to provide a manual for BIA teachers in Alaska's remote schools.
First area-wide in-service training program for Principal-Teachers emphasizing community relations and development of Native leadership.
First secondary level program in a BIA day school established with opening of 9th grade at Unalakleet.
The Tundra Times established, the first state wide newspaper devoted to representing the views and issues of Alaska Natives.
Supplemental nutrition program changed to provide complete school lunch. Agreement that education is a State and local responsibility.
Governor's Committee issues first report entitled "An Overall Education Plan for Rural Alaska" as a basis for cooperative relationship of BIA and State of Alaska.
Area-wide workshop for primary teachers with emphasis on teaching English to children as a second language.
William E. Beltz School opens as first State-operated regional boarding high school. Teacher aides provided in BIA day schools. Special education program introduced at Hooper Bay.
Area-wide workshop for all education personnel emphasizing the linguistic method in teaching English as a Second language.
School Boards contract for instruction in cultural and linguistic heritage
Full high school program at Kotzebue Community School established
Bureau's first pre-school programs for 2- and 3-year-olds. Administration of program funding at Agency level established.
The so-called "Molly Hootch" (Tobeluk vs. Lind) case is settled with the commitment by the state to provide local schools for Alaska Native communities as it had in predominately white communities in the state.
Modeled in many respects on the urban school districts in state with the allowance of local school boards to set many policies in their schools.