British Depth Study

Women

Butler Education Act

1945

Labour
- Right to secondary education
- Sewing seeds for future intellectuals
- 1960 - 1/3 undergraduates women
- biased towards domestic duties

Contraceptive pill

1961

Conservative
- Enoch Powell - Health Minister
- Conovoid - prescribed through NHS
- Meant women started families later - more opportunities

Abortion Act

1967

Private Member Bill/Labour
- Abortion legal
- More control over lives
- In effect April 1968

Divorce Reform Act

1969

Private Members Bill/ Labour
- Allowed divorce on grounds of adultery, cruelty, desertion or mutual consent after two years - 5 years if only one person wants divorce
- In effect 1971

Equal Pay Act

1970

Labour
- Prevent discrimination of employment
- More chance for women to support themselves = independent
- In effect 1975

Sex Discrimination Act

1975

Labour
- Protected from gender discrimination
- Mainly applied to employment, training, education and harassment

Youth

Tripartite system

1944 - Approx. 1970
  • 11+ exam in last year of primary school - some were late bloomers
  • Three types of schools - grammar, technical and secondary modern

Blackboard Jungle

1955
  • Caused teddy boy riots
  • Showed a mob mentality
  • First show of confrontation

CND formed

1957
  • Campaign for nuclear disarmament
  • Leading peace movement in the UK

CND march

1958
  • Aldermaston to Trafalgar square
  • By Direct Action Committee

Mod/Rocker fights

1964
  • Margate, Brighton, Bournemouth
  • "Disintegration of nation's character"
  • Police review - "surge and flame like a forest fire"

Anti-Vietnam protest

1968
  • Over 200 people arrested
  • Protest outside US embassy
  • 50 people to hospital
  • Began in good humour until mounted officers rode at them
  • Vanessa Redgrave joined in
  • Labour MP Peter Jackson - "police violence"

Immigration

Racial tension increasing

1958

Notting Hill - August
- 300-400 white people - many Teddy Boys
- Attacked West Indians
- Police advice to "return home"
- Every night until September
- Black --> Metropolitan Police tension increased

Commonwealth immigrants act

1962

Conservative
- Only those with government issued employment vouchers
- Told they were lazy, undercut others, responsible for crime, didn't interact with public

Race Relations Act I

1965

Many politicians appalled by prejudice
- Illegal to discriminate on grounds of race in a public place
- Race Relations Board and National Committee for Commonwealth immigrants

National Front

1967
  • Extreme Right Wing
  • Opposed immigration
  • Gains in local elections in 70s but never an MP - attitude not widespread
  • Immigrants uncomfortable

Rivers of Blood

1968

Enoch Powell - Conservative
- Immigrants insulted - Powell fired
- Press condemned it but support letters from immigration officers at Heathrow and London docks

Race Relations Act II

1968
  • Outlawed housing discrimination
  • Outlawed employment discrimination

Commonwealth immigrants act II

1972
  • Only holders of work permits or with parents/grandparents in the country