World History

by Dan-Andrei Iliescu

Timeline

Neolithic

Approx. 8000 bc - Approx. 3500 bc

Bronze Age

Approx. 3500 bc - Approx. 1200 bc

Iron Age

Approx. 1200 bc - Approx. 600 bc

Classical Age

Approx. 600 bc - Approx. 600

Renaissance

Approx. 1350 - Approx. 1650
  • rediscovery of classical knowledge and the arts
  • humanism

Reformation

1517 - 1750
  • splitting of the Church

Enlightenment

Approx. 1650 - Approx. 1800

Milestones

Birth of Christ

0 ad

Birth of Muhammad

570

Famines across europe

1315 - 1322

Black Death in Europe

1346 - 1353

Black Death

1350

Eastern Asia

Yangshao culture

Approx. 5000 bc

Longshan culture

3500 bc

Xia Dynasty

Approx. 2200 bc - Approx. 1700 bc

Shang Dynasty

1700 bc - 1100 bc

Zhou Dynasty

1100 bc - 256 bc

Lao Tzu

604 bc - 516 bc

Confucius

551 bc - 479 bc

Warring States Period

481 bc - 221 bc

Unification of China

221 bc

Qin Dynasty

221 bc - 206 bc

Han Dynasty

206 bc - 220

Zen Buddhism becomes the official religion of Japan

580

Sui Dynasty

581 - 618

the Grand Canal is completed

609

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

Taika Reforms

645
  • Enhance centralization in the Chinese way

Heian Period

749 - 1185
  • Peak of Chinese influence in Japan

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279
  • Decline of Buddhism - Rise of Confucianism
  • Iron based industry
  • Gunpowder

Tale of Genji

1021
  • Description of the Heian court

Genghis Khan

1162 - 1227

Temujin becomes Khan

1206

Kublai Khan

1260 - 1294

Yuan Dynasty

1271 - 1368

Black Death

1330

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644
  • De-mongolization
  • Expansion of trade (Zheng He)

Oda Nobunaga

1534 - 1582
  • Shogun
  • started the unification of Japan

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

1536 - 1598
  • daimyo
  • finished the unification of Japan

The Portuguese introduce firearms in Japan

1540

Tokugawa Ieyasu

1543 - 1616

Unification of Japan

1590

Edo Period (Tokugawa Shogunate)

1603 - 1868
  • Bakufu (military government)

Ban of Christianity in Japan

1614

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911

Chinese allow Europeans to pay in silver only

1793

Ban on opium

1835

Opium wars

1839
  • British victory over China
  • British get Hong Kong + monopoly over Chinese trade

Taiping Rebellion

1851 - 1864
  • greatest civil war in history
  • eventually supressed

Second Opium War

1856 - 1860
  • British victory again

Sun Yat-Sen

1866 - 1925
  • revolutionary of the Xinhai Revolution
  • founder of the Republic of China

Meiji Reforms

1866 - 1868
  • modernization of technology and industry

Boshin War

1868
  • Imperial victory over the Shogunate
  • modernization of Japan

Meiji Period

1868 - 1912
  • transition from feudalism to modernity
  • first half of the Japanese Empire

Sino-Japanase War

1895
  • established Japan as a military power

Boxer Rebellion

1900
  • against Christians and foreigners

Russo-Japanese Wars

1904
  • Japanese victory
  • Japanese annexation of Korea

Xinhai Revolution

1911
  • ended the empire
  • installed a republic

Japan surrenders

9 aug 1945

Central Asia

Median Empire

678 bc - 550 bc

Achaemenid Empire

550 bc - 327 bc

Greco-Bactrian Empire

327 bc - 247 bc

Parthian Empire

247 bc - 224

Sassanid Empire

224 - 651

Battle of Talas River

751

Khwarazmian Empire

1077 - 1231

Chagatai Khanate

1225 - 1687

Tamerlane

1336 - 1405

Safavid Empire

1501 - 1736

Southern Asia

Indus Valley Civilizations

3000 bc - 1600 bc

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

3000 bc

Aryan Empire

1600 bc - 327 bc

Aryans conquer the Indus Valley

1600 bc

Writing of the Vedas

1500 bc - 500 bc

Aryans conquer the Ganges Valley

1000 bc

Buddha

563 bc - 483 bc

Siddhaartha Gautama

Alexander the Great

327 bc

Mauryan Empire

324 bc - 185 bc

Ashoka converts to Buddhism

260 bc

Gupta Empire

320 - 540

Khwarazmian Empire

1077 - 1231

Delhi Sultanate

1211 - 1526

Ilkhanate

1256 - 1335

Safavid Empire

1501 - 1736

Mughal Empire

1520 - 1707

Akbar the Great

1542 - 1605

Taj Mahal built

1653

British take control over India

1750 - 1850
  • companies expand their territories

Western Asia

Sumerian city-states

3500 bc - 2350 bc

Ur Uruk Lagash Lippur Eridu

Rise of Sumerian culture in south Mesopotamia

3500 bc

Invention of wheel, Bronze becomes common

3300 bc

Cuneiform developed, Ziggurats are built

3300 bc

Akkadian Empire

2350 bc - 2150 bc

Sargon conquers Sumer

2350 bc

Third Dynasty of Ur

2115 bc - 2000 bc

Patriarchal Age

2100 bc - 1800 bc

Old Babylonian Empire (Amorites)

1830 bc - 1531 bc

The Covenant

1800 bc

Hammurabi

1790 bc - 1750 bc

Code of Hammurabi

1750 bc

Hebrew Scriptures

1000 bc

Kingdom of Judah

930 bc - 586 bc

Kingdom of Israel

930 bc - 720 bc

Assyrian Empire

900 bc - 610 bc

Assyrians conquer Israel

722 bc

Library of Niniveh

650 bc

Built by Ashurbanipal

Neo-Babylonian Empire (Chaldeans)

611 bc - 539 bc

Nabuchadnezzar II conquers Judah

586 bc

Achaemenid Domination

550 bc - 330 bc

Kingdom of Judea

539 bc - 333 bc

Macedonian Domination

330 bc - 312 bc

Seleucid Empire

312 bc - 63 bc

Kingdom of Judea

165 bc - 63 bc

Roman Domination of the Near East

63 bc - Approx. 293

Herod rules the province of Judea

37 bc - 4 bc

First Jewish Revolt

66 ad - 73 ad

Second Jewish Revolt

118 - 138

Romans destroy Jerusalem

138

Sassanid Domination

224 - 651

Muhammad

570 - 632

Revelation in the cave

610

Hijra

622

Abu Bakr becomes leader of the Ummah

632

Umayyad Caliphate

661 - 750

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

Seljuq Domination

1037 - 1194

First Crusade

1095

Saladin reconquers Jerusalem

1187

Third Crusade

1189

Ilkhanate

1258 - 1335

Baghdad falls to the Mongols

1258

Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1923

Battle of Kosovopolje

1389

Ottomans conquer Constantinople

1453

Reign of Suleyman

1520 - 1566

Siege of Vienna

1529

Southern Europe

Minoan Civilization

Approx. 3500 bc - 1200 bc

Greek speakers invade Greece

2500 bc

Mycaenean Civilization

1400 bc - 1200 bc

Greek Dark Ages

Approx. 1200 bc - Approx. 750 bc

Trojan War

1200 bc

Kingdom of Rome

753 bc - 509 bc

Legendary founding of Rome

753 bc

Solon of Athens

638 bc - 558 bc

Laws of Draco

621 bc

Peloponnesian League

Approx. 600 bc - 338 bc

Roman Republic

509 bc - 27 bc

Greco-Persian Wars

499 bc - 479 bc

Pericles

495 bc - 429 bc

Battle of Marathon

490 bc

Battle of Thermopylae

480 bc

Golden Age of Athens

479 bc - 430 bc

Delian League

477 bc - 404 bc

Delian treasury moved to Athens

454 bc

Peloponnesian War

432 bc - 404 bc

Rule of Philip

359 bc - 336 bc

Macedonian conquest of Athens

338 bc

Rule of Alexander

336 bc - 323 bc

Hellenistic Age

323 bc - 30 bc

First Punic War

264 bc - 241 bc

Second Punic War

218 bc - 201 bc

Third Punic War

149 bc - 146 bc

Rome conquers Greece

146 bc

First Civil War

49 bc - 45 bc

Assassination of Julius Caesar

44 bc

Second Civil War

44 bc - 31 bc

Octavian becomes Imperator

38 bc

Pax Romana

27 bc - 180

Roman Empire

27 bc - 293

Octavian becomes Augustus

27 bc

Death of Marcus Aurelius

180

Reign of Diocletian

284 - 305

Eastern Roman Empire

293 - 620

Western Roman Empire

293 - 476

Tetrarchy

293

Edict of Milan

313

Council of Nicaea

325

Constantinople becomes capital

330

Theodosius declares Christianity official

380

Pope convinces Attila not to attack Rome

452

Reign of Justinian

527 - 565

Hagia Sophia

527

Justinian Code

550

Byzantine Empire

620 - 1204

Reconquista

718 - 1492

Great Schism

1054

Spanish conquer Toledo

1085

Alfonso of Castile and El Cid

Fourth Crusade

1204

Latin Empire

1204 - 1261

Las Navas de Tolosa

1212

Byzantine Empire

1261 - 1453

Francesco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Ottoman Empire

1360 - 1918

Cristopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

Vasco da Gama

1460 - 1524

Unification of Spain

1469

Niccolo Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Ferdinand Magellan

1480 - 1521

Spanish inquisition

1490 - 1834

Re-discovery of America

1492

Alternative route to India

1498

Muslim and Jews expelled from Spain

1504

Voyage around the world

1521

Founding of the Jesuit Order

1534

by Ignatius Loyola

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563
  • Sought to reconciliate the Catholic and Protestant Churches. Failed.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Height of the Ottoman Empire

1566

Battle of Lepanto

1571

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

1914
  • in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip

USSR

1922 - 1991

Reign of Mussolini

1922 - 1945

Eastern Europe + Northern Asia

Kievan Rus

882 - 1283

Reign of Vladimir of Kiev

972 - 1015

Republic of Novgorod

1136 - 1478

Golden Horde

1230 - 1380

Mongols conquer Hungary

1240

Grand Duchy of Moscow

1283 - 1547

Battle of Kulikova

1380

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Ivan III the Great drives the Mongols out of Russia

1480

Tsardom of Russia

1547 - 1721

Peter the Great

1672 - 1725

Great Norther War

1700 - 1721
  • Between Russia and Sweden
  • Russian victory

Russian Empire

1721 - 1917

Invasion of Russia

1805

Tsar Alexander II

1818 - 1881
  • abolsihed serfdom
  • loosened restrictions on social freedom
  • encouraged local self-government

Abolition of serfdom in Russia

1861

Tsar Nicholas II

1868 - 1918
  • continued reforms but came short of democracy

Protests in St Petersburg

1905
  • protesters killed

Tsar abdicates

1917

Russian Civil War

1917 - 1922
  • between the Boolsheviks and the Impereialists

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

1918
  • RSFSR withdraws from the war

Russian October Revolution

1918
  • USSR
  • Tsar is executed

Warsaw Pact

1955 - 1991

Western Europe

Battle of Tours

732

Charles Martel defeats the Umayyads

Kingdom of Francia

843 - 1190

Philip II

1190

Kingdom of France

1190 - 1792

Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press

1450

Desiderius Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Diet of Worms

1521

Peace of Augsburg

1555
  • cuius regio eius religio

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

Dutch Republic

1581 - 1795

Reign of Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Edict of Nantes

1589
  • protects Huguenots

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648
  • between Protestants and Catholics

Peace of Alais

1629
  • protects Huguenots but doesn't allow them to arm

Dutch independence from Spain

1648

Peace of Westphalia

1648
  • Protestant princes allowed to continue religious practices.

  • Habsburg supremacy curtailed

  • Rise of France and the Bourbon dynasty

  • Rise of the Swedish Empire

  • Decline of feudalism

  • Decentralization of the Holy Roman Empire

  • Substantial decline in the power and influence of the Catholic Church

Siege of Vienna by the Ottomans

1683

7 Years' War

1754 - 1763

Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen

1789

French Revolution

1789 - 1799
  • Abolition of the French monarchy

  • Establishment of a secular and democratic republic that became increasingly authoritarian and militaristic

  • Radical social change based on liberalism and other Enlightenment principles

  • Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  • Armed conflicts with other European countries.

French Revolution

1789

French Constitution

1791

First Republic

1792 - 1804

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1815
  • by Coup d'Etat

First Empire

1804 - 1815

Treaty of Vienna

1815

Bourbon Restoration

1815 - 1830

July Monarchy

1830 - 1848

Second Republic

1848 - 1852

Second Empire

1852 - 1870

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871
  • German victory
  • establishment of the German Empire
  • fall of the French Empire

Third Republic

1870 - 1940

Alliances establiched

1907

Triple Alliance: Germany - Austria - Italy
Triple Entente: UK - France - Russia

Armistice

11 nov 1918

Treaty of Versailles

1919
  • harsh on Germany

Weimar Republic

1919 - 1933
  • unpopular

Reign of Adolf Hitler

1933 - 1945

Hitler occupies the Rhineland

1936

Surrender of Germany

8 may 1945

NATO

4 apr 1949 - Approx. 2014

Northern Europe

Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of England

973 - 1066

Battle of Hastings

1066

Norman Kingdom of England

1066 - 1154

Plantagenet Kingdom of England

1154 - 1485

Reign of Henry II

1154 - 1189

Magna Carta

1215

Hanseatic League

1358 - 1669

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Sir Thomas More

1478 - 1536

Tudor England

1485 - 1603

Henry VIII

1491 - 1547

Elizabeth I

1533 - 1603

Book of Common Prayer

1549

Sir Francisc Bacon

1561 - 1626

William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679
  • claimed that power came not from God, but from the people

Spanish Armada defeat

1588

Stuart Kingdom of England

1603 - 1707

John Locke

1632 - 1704
  • social contract (government - citizen)

Sir Isaac Newton

1642 - 1724

Glorious Revolution

1688

Kingdom of Great Britain

1707 - 1800

United Kingdom

1800 - Approx. 2014

North Africa

Unification of the Upper and Lower Kingdoms

3100 bc

under Menes

Early Dynastic Period

3100 bc - 2700 bc

Hieroglyphs developed

3100 bc

Old Kingdom

2700 bc - 2200 bc

Pyramid of Khufu

2500 bc

Great Famine

2150 bc

Middle Kingdom

2000 bc - 1700 bc

Egypt conquers Nubia

1900 bc

Trade with the Mediterranean

1900 bc

Hyksos conquer Lower Egypt

1600 bc

New Kingdom

1570 bc - 1070 bc

by Ahmose

Age of Great Pharaohs

1500 bc - 1200 bc

Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Ramses the Great

Mongols defeated by Mamluks

1260

Central Africa

Bantu migrations

Approx. 1500 bc - Approx. 500 bc

Due to the southern spread of the Saharan Desert

Kush Kingdom

1000 bc - 600

Kush kings rule Egypt

750 bc - 666 bc

Founding of Jenne-Jeno (Sahel)

250 bc

Kingdom of Ghana

750 - 1068

Mali Empire

1235 - 1546

North America

Anasazi Culture

Approx. 200 bc - Approx. 700

American Revolution

1776

United States of America

1776 - Approx. 2014

Abolition of slavery in the US

1865

US enters the First Worl War

1917

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

7 dec 1941

Mesoamerica

Olmec Civilization

1200 bc - 500 bc

Teotihuacan Civilization

300 bc - 700

Mayan Civilization

300 - 900

Toltec Civilization

900 - 1101

Founding of Tenochtitlan

1325

Aztec Civilization

1325 - 1521
  • Calpulli clans
  • Ruled through a system of tribute

Hernan Cortes arrives in Mexico

1521

Haitian Revolution

1804

South America

Chavin Culture

900 bc

Incan Empire

1476 - 1534

Francisco Pizarro reaches the Incan Empire

1526

Abolition of slavery in Brazil

1888