Mesopotamia

General Mesopotamia

The Sumer move into Mesopotamia

5000 BC

At around 4000 BC, a people called The Sumer moved into Mesopotamia and begin to grow and sow crops.

Temples are built by the Sumer to their gods

4,000 BC

The Sumer people built temples called ziggurats to worship their gods. They began building large and powerful cities.

Cities growing across Mesopotamia

3500 BC - 3400 BC

Cities begin to grow across Mesopotamia

Written Language is Invented

3,300 BC

Written language is invented, and the Sumer people begin using pictures to represent certain words, and to string them together into sentences.

The Wheel is Invented

3200 BC

As people learned, they began inventing other items, including the wheel which made transport easier.

Signs Become Cuneiform

2400 BC - 2300 BC

Signs become cuneiform

Mesopotamia Gets New Rulers

2330 BC

The Sumerian people were taken over by the Akkadians. The Akkadians began the Akkadian Empire.

Sumerian Cities are United

2300 BC - 2200 BC

Sumerian cities are united by King Sargon of Agade (Akkad).

Agade Empire expands and declines

2200 Bc - 2100 bc

Agade Empire expands and declines

Ur becomes the capital of a new empire

2100 bc

The city of Ur becomes the capital of a new empire

Ur destroyed by Elamites

2000 BC - 1900 bc

Ur is destroyed by Elamites
and Amorites

Another Change of Power

1900 BC

The Assyrians came in and defeated Mesopotamia's rulers, making the land come under Assyrian rule.

Akkadian becomes the main spoken language

1900 BC - 1800 bc

Akkadian becomes the main spoken
and written language of Mesopotamia

Hammurabi unites much of Mesopotamia

1800 bc - 1700 bc

Hammurabi unites much of Mesopotamia

Babylon Moves into Power

1792 BC

Hammurabi the king of Babylonian , took power of Mesopotamia.

The Babylonians Lose Their Power

1750 BC

After King Hammurabi died, the land fell apart. It was taken over by the Kassites in 1595.

Hittites raid Babylon

1600 bc - 1500 bc

Hittites raid Babylon

Mitannian Empire controls North Mesopotamia , Kassites Rule South Mesopotamia

1500 bc - 1300 bc

Mitannian Empire controls north Mesopotamia
Kassites control south Mesopotamia

Assyrians conquer much of Mesopotamia

1300 bc - 1100 bc

Assyrians conquer much of Mesopotamia

The People Begin to Use Iron in Their Inventions

1250 BC

The Assyrians eventually took back Mesopotamia. They began using iron to make stronger weapons and making chariots.

Assyrians begin reconquest of Mesopotamia

1000 bc - 900 bc

Assyrians begin reconquest of Mesopotamia

The Capital City is Named

705 BC

Nineveh became the capital city of the Assyrian's land.

Egypt conquered by Assyria

700 bc - 600 bc

Egypt is conquered by Assyria

King Sennacherib has Nineveh built

700 BC - 600 bc

King Sennacherib has Nineveh built

The Great Library is Built

668 BC

After Nineveh was named the capital, the rulers of the land built a huge library there.

Assyria destroyed by Chaldeans

600 Bc - 500 bc

Assyria destroyed by Chaldeans

Babylon rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar II

600 bc - 500 bc

Babylon rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar II

The Persians take over Mesopotamia

550 BC

Under the king Cyrus the Great, the Persians took control. He allowed the Jewish slaves to return to their land of Israel.

Land is Divided into States

522 BC

Darius I became the ruler of the land and divided it into different states. He called them satraps.

Mesopotamia becomes part of the Achaemenid Persian empire

500 bc - 400 bc

Mesopotamia becomes part of the Achaemenid Persian empire

The Greeks Take Rule of Mesopotamia

490 BC

While still under the lead of Darius the Greeks moved in and took rule of Mesopoatamia.

Alexander the Great is Leader

333 BC

The famous Alexander the Great moved through the land and took control. It was the end of Mesopotamia's seat as the world's powers.

The Sumer

Huge mud-brick temples

3500 bc - 3400 bc

Huge mud-brick temples

Growth of cities like Uruk

3500 BC - 3400 bc

Growth of cities like Uruk

First written account of war

2500 bc - 2400 bc

First written account of war

Hammurabi unites all the Sumerian cities

1800 BC - 1700 BC

Hammurabi unites all the Sumerian cities with the capital at Babylon

Many Sumerian traditions continued in Babylonia.

1700 bc - 100 bc

Many Sumerian traditions continued in Babylonia. Sumerian language no longer spoken but is still written for some religious inscriptions.

Sumerian cities start being excavated

1800 - 1900

Sumerian cities start being excavated

Sumerian language translated

1900 - 2000

Sumerian language is translated

Babylonia

Babylonia dominated by Sumerian culture

3500 bc - 2300 bc

Babylonia dominated by Sumerian culture

Babylon a small town

2200 bc - 2100 bc

Babylon a small town

Amorite kings at Babylon

1900 bc - 1800 bc

Amorite kings at Babylon

Hittites raid Babylon

1600 bc - 1500 bc

Hittites raid Babylon

Kassite kings control Babylonia

1500 bc - 1400 bc

Kassite kings control Babylonia

Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta conquers Babylonia

1300 bc - 1200 bc

Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta conquers Babylonia

Elamites attack Babylon

1200 bc - 1100 bc

Elamites attack Babylon

Many cities and tribes fight for control

1100 bc - 800 bc

Many cities and tribes fight for control of Babylonia

Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III captures Babylonia

800 bc - 700 bc

Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III captures Babylonia

Assyrian king Sennacherib destroys Babylon

700 bc - 600 bc

Assyrian king Sennacherib destroys Babylon

Neo-Babylonian dynasty

600 bc - 500 bc

Neo-Babylonian dynasty

Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilds Babylon

600 bc - 500 bc

Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilds Babylon

Babylonia becomes part of the Persian empire

500 bc - 400 bc

Babylonia becomes part of the Persian empire

Assyria

Cities are growing across Mesopotamia

3500 bc - 3400 bc

Cities are growing across Mesopotamia

Temple of Ishtar at Ashur

2500 bc - 2400 bc

Temple of Ishtar at Ashur

Assyrians dominate trade with Anatolia

2000 bc - 1900 bc

Assyrians dominate trade with Anatolia

Ashur ruled by King Shamshi-Adad

1900 bc - 1800 bc

Ashur ruled by King Shamshi-Adad

Hammurabi controls Ashur

1800 bc - 1700 bc

Hammurabi controls Ashur

Assyria controlled by Mitannian Empire

1500 bc - 1400 bc

Assyria controlled by Mitannian Empire

Middle Assyrian empire established

1300 bc - 1200 bc

Middle Assyrian empire established

Aramaean tribes weaken Assyria

1100 bc - 1000 bc

Aramaean tribes weaken Assyria

Assyrian kings reconquer north Mesopotamia

900 bc - 800 bc

Assyrian kings reconquer north Mesopotamia

A new capital built at Nimrud

900 bc - 800 bc

A new capital built at Nimrud

Assyrians capture Damascus

800 bc - 700 bc

Assyrians capture Damascus

Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III captures Babylonia

800 bc - 700 BC

Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III captures Babylonia

Egypt conquered by Assyria

700 bc - 600 bc

Egypt conquered by Assyria

King Sennacherib has Nineveh rebuilt

700 BC - 600 BC

King Sennacherib has Nineveh rebuilt

Assyrian cities destroyed by Medes

600 bc - 500 bc

Assyrian cities destroyed by Medes
and Babylonians

Seleucid empire established

300 bC - 200 BC

Seleucid empire established

Parthian empire established

200 BC - 100 BC

Parthian empire established

Sasanian empire established

200 - 300

Sasanian empire established

Islamic conquest

600 - 700

Islamic conquest

Seljuk Turks conquer region

1000 - 1100

Seljuk Turks conquer region

Ottoman empire established

1500 - 1600

Ottoman empire established

Assyrian capitals excavated by Henry Layard

1800 - 1900

Assyrian capitals excavated by Henry Layard

Ziggurats

Temples are Built on Mudbrick Platforms

3500 BC - 3400 BC

By 4000 B.C. large temples were being built in Mesopotamian towns on top of mud-brick platforms.

Platforms Built Higher Similar to Ziggurats

2400 BC - 2300 BC

Platforms built higher like the later ziggurats.

Ur-Nammu has a Ziggurat Built in Ur

2100 BC - 2000 BC

Ur-Nammu has a ziggurat built in Ur and other cities. The structure was built during the Early Bronze Age, but had turned to ruins by the 6th century BC of the Neo-Babylonian period when it was restored by King Nabonidus.

Ziggurats Are Built in Northern Mesopotamia

1800 BC - 1700 BC

Ziggurats are built in northern Mesopotamia.

The Kassites Build a Ziggurat

1400 BC - 1300 BC

Kassites build a large ziggurat.

Ziggurat at Babylon

800 BC - 700 BC

A Ziggurat in Babylon is built.

Nabonidus has the ziggurat at Ur rebuilt

600 BC - 500 BC

Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, has the ziggurat at Ur rebuilt

Ziggurats go out of use

500 BC - 400 BC

Ziggurats go out of use

Artists Reconstruct the Ziggurat at Babylon

1200 AD - 1900 AD

Artists use ancient descriptions
to reconstruct the ziggurat at Babylon.

Writing

Pictographic record-keeping

3200 BC - 3100 BC





Signs used to write the Sumerian language

3000 BC - 2900 BC

Signs used to write the Sumerian language

Short inscriptions

2600 BC - 2500 BC

Short inscriptions

Long poems and royal inscriptions

2500 BC - 2400 BC

Long poems and royal inscriptions

Signs become cuneiform

2400 BC - 2300 BC

Signs become cuneiform

Change in direction of the script

2400 BC - 2300 BC

Change in direction of the script

Akkadian language written using cuneiform

2300 BC - 2200 BC

Akkadian language written using cuneiform

First clay envelopes

2100 BC - 2000 bc

First clay envelopes

Sumerian language spoken less and Akkadian is the main written language

1800 BC - 1700 BC

Sumerian language spoken less and Akkadian is the main written language

Cuneiform used to write Hittite

1600 BC - 1500 bc

Cuneiform used to write Hittite

Cuneiform used to write Canaanite languages and the Early alphabet is in use

1500 BC - 1400 BC

Cuneiform used to write Canaanite languages and the early alphabet is in use

Amarna letters

1400 Bc - 1300 BC

Amarna letters

Cuneiform used to write Urartian language

1000 BC - 900 BC

Cuneiform used to write Urartian language

Aramaic and Hebrew alphabets developed

900 BC - 800 bc

Aramaic and Hebrew alphabets developed

Phoenician alphabet spreads to Greece

800 BC - 700 BC

Phoenician alphabet spreads to Greece

Library at Nineveh

700 BC - 600 bc

Library at Nineveh

Bisitun inscription

500 BC - 400 bc

Bisitun inscription

Last dateable cuneiform text

75 A.D.

Last dateable cuneiform text

Arabic alphabet developed

500 - 600

Arabic alphabet developed

Mesopotamian script first

1700 - 1800

Mesopotamian script first

described as 'cuneiform'

Translation of Akkadian by Henry Rawlinson and others

1800 - 1900

Translation of Akkadian by Henry Rawlinson and others

Publication of the Assyrian and Sumerian dictionaries

1900

Publication of the Assyrian and Sumerian dictionaries