There were lots of Indian wars on the Great Plains. One of the biggest ones was the Battle of Little Big Horn in Montana. The leader, Custer, took his men into battle and all 215 of his men were killed. This was also the time that reservation policies began and Native Americans were cheated out of their land. The buffalo population went from 15 million to 600 buffalo by 1896 because of the wars. Slaughter of the buffalo was the main reason for the victory of the Americans over the Indians. Congress then shifts policies on Indians and tries to Americanize them.
This era was the period of time when the 13, 14, and 15 amendment were added to the US constitution. It also included the Jim Crow Laws going into effect. People got away with slavery using black codes. They would use sharecropping and give the workers very little of the money.
The 13th Amendment makes all slavery illegal in the United States. "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (Taken from the 13th Amendment) This law was created because of the Civil War and was added to the Constitution of the United States.
This amendment gave African Americans citizenship. They gained the privileges a white man would recieve. In 1868 this law was put into the United States Constitution.
This amendment gave African American males the right to vote. "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." This was a big step because before this African Americans were only counted as 3/5 of a person.
The unions changed the status of workers and made things safer. Before this the working conditions were dangerous and there were long hours with little pay. Unions stopped sweat shops and child labor and created laws like minimum wage.
Industrialization was a new start to the United States with many new inventions. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb and figured out how to contain electricity. The telephone and the type writer were also invented. There were fewer impurities in products because of the steal industry.
There were many complex corporations in the late 1800's. These companies changed business forever. Andrew Carnegie and John D Rockefeller pushed competition out of business and drove prices up. This is when the government created anti trust laws so that nobody could have a monopoly on a product.
Immigrants were mostly from southern and eastern europe. They were concentrated into the cities on the east coast. Cultural differences made assimilating in the US difficult for the immigrants. Fear and prejudice from Americans caused friction with the immigrants. This is when America officially got the name melting pot.
This case was about a black man who wanted to sit in a white section of a train. He ended up going all the way to the supreme court. They ruled that separate but equal is legal. This led to black codes and Jim Crow laws.
Before 1800 most people lived in rural areas. Industrialization brought many people to the city looking for factory jobs. Population tripled in cities over a short period of time bringing a lot of problems. The problems included poor housing, no police protection or education, sanitation issues, and destroyed environments.
The progressive era was everything that was done to fix the urbanization. The presidents who put this in effect were Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. Interests of reform of government begins to change life for the better. The Muckrakers, like Upton Sinclair (The Jungle), put laws into place like the pure food and drug act and the meat inspection act.
This amendment made income taxes in the United States. This is when the government takes how much you make in a year and tax you on it. "The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration."
This amendment banned all alcohol in the United States. The idea was to stop evil with it but instead a giant black market was created with people like Al Capone. "After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited." The 21st amendment repealed the 18th in 1933.
This amendment gave women the right to vote. They were now as equal as men were. "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
Herbert Hoover was the 31st president. Hoover was the president when the US went into the Great Depression. Many Americans blamed him for the depression. He failed to notice the Americans needs.
The stock market crash is what led the United States into the Great Depression. Most of America was unemployed and most banks failed and lost all of peoples money. A lot of families were homeless and lived in Hoovervilles. The president during this was President Hoover.
Franklin D Roosevelt was the 32nd president. Roosevelt came into the middle of the depression and tried to restore confidence with "Fireside Chats". He made the New Deal reforms which made the American life essentially better. He was the only president in history to be elected four times.
After Pearl Harbor, the United States saw Japanese as bad. In result of this we put them in internment camps. These camps were sort of like concentration camps. The US likes to overlook this event in history.
The Cold War was between the US and the Soviet Union. There was a constant fear that they would bomb our country. This was also the Space Race when we were racing to the moon and tried to get there before Russia.
Harry Truman was the 33rd president. He made the decision to drop the nuclear bomb on Japan. He also helped to rebuild postwar Europe. Truman led the US into the Korean War.
Dwight D Eisenhower served two terms in presidency from 1953-1961 and was the 34th president. Eisenhower took care of Cold War tensions with the Soviets. He also ended the Korean War in 1953. He started the interstate highway system and made social security more reliable.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th president and he was 43 years old. He did many great things like taking care of the Berlin Crisis, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Space Race, and Civil Rights. Kennedy was assassinated November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas.
The 36th president was Lyndon Johnson. He took over after the assassination of Kennedy. He led the US into the Vietnam War and didn't run in the 1969 election because of it.
Richard M Nixon was the 37th president. He was involved in the Water Gate scandal. He lost to John F Kennedy then ran a second time and won because Bobby Kennedy was assassinated.