jorge garcia

Main

william iii

1669 - 1702

mary

1689 - 1694

complete control of the parliament

control of the administration

the relation between the two houses of parliament underwant alteration

increasing control of parliament in financial affairs

charles ii denied the right of the house to amend bills

bill of rights was passed in 1689

william and mary were declared king and queen

roman catholic could not succed to the throne

parliament was to be freely elected

no taxation

a standing army was declared illegal

the army annual act

act of settlement 1701

the liberty of the press

the toleration act 1689

the non jurors

mary's death

1516 - 1558

conclusion of the war with france 1697

a great blow to william's position

his aunpopularity increased

worried in foreings affairs

tory parliament attacked

the war of spanish succession 1702

two features in finantial finance

1693 - 1694

the national debt

the banck of england

foreings wars

1689 - 1714

the revolution of 1688 led to a period of prolonged conflict for Great Britain

seven great wars

1688 - 1815

fixty- seven years

Great Britain's chief opponent is France

Ambitios of France in Europe

wanted to extend and to strengthen her eastern frontier

making the river Rhine her boundary

south east of the Germans

north east, of the Netherlands

Barrier frortresses

the ambitions of France

1689 - 1815

her rulers attempted to control the policy of Spain

making a close familly allaince or treaty

louis xiv

1643 - 1715

at the beggining and the French Revolutions

Napoleon

1783 - 1815

At the end of the period had achieved position in Europe

Thretened the independence of all others states

The position of Louis xiv

1688 - 1713

his army was engage in continual wars

no serious reverse in battle for over forty years

his navy was equal to those of Holland and England combined

The english kings, Charles ii and James ii had been his pensioners

he had hopes of securinf for his family the succession to the throne of Spain

The revolution in England ruined theplans of Louis xiv

He was dependent upon Louis xiv

William iii, the ruler of Holland

1689 - 1702

devoted to resisting France

formed aleague against France 1689

supported England 1689

The war of the English succession

1689 - 1697

Louis xiv supported James ii

Its issues decided wheter Willaiam or James ws to be the king of England

English military operations were confined to the British isles and to the sea

1689 - 1690

In Scotland john Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee rised on behalf of James

In the battle Dundee was mortally wounded

In IRELAND James arrived with money and troops

racial problems between the Irish habitants and English and Scotish settlers

War between Catholic and Protestants

Protestants of Londonderry and Enniskillen

The battle of Newtown Butler

William came to Ireland and won victory at the River Boyne 1690

Variety of nations engaged

Jame's forces were French and the comander in chief was a Frenchman

On William's side were natives of England

Others were Irish prtestants from the north of Ireland

Others were Irish prtestants from the north of Ireland

Two thousand Dutchman. the rest were Huguenots, Prusians, Dnes and Finlanders

James fled back to France and in 1691 the war in Ireland end

Battle of Beacky Head 1690

England obtained the supreamcy at sea

1691 - 1697

Victory at La Hogue 1692

Tourville vs the English admiaral Russell

The French had retired in disorder

Race of Alderney

The English operations

1691 - 1697

were confined to the Spaniah Netherlands

William was a mediocre soldier vs luexembourg was brilliant oponent

William lost the battles

Luxembourg took no advantages of his victories

William's designs were excelent

Luxembourg won a victory

William was beaten at Neewinden

The capture of the fortress of Namur

The Treaty of Ryswick 1697

France recognized Willias as Kings of England

gave up all her conquests since 1678 except Strasbourg

The war of Spanish succession

1701 - 1714

Two monarchs involved

for the distribution of the territories belonging to a third one

anticipating his death

The Spanish dominions incluede Spain,teh Spanis Ntetherlands, Milan and Naples

, Sicily and Sardinis, vast possesions in the West Indies and South Africa

Charles ii, the king of Spain had no children or brothers

he had two sisters and two aunts

the older had married the French king

the younger the Emperor

all dead

their respective sons, Louis xiv and the Emperor Leopold i had married

The one he elder sister of the Spanish King

The other, the younger sister of the Spanish King

Louis xiv and William iii proceeded to draw up Partition Treaties

the grannson of Leopold and the heir to the Electorate of Bavaria

was to succeed to the greater part of the Spanish dominions 1698

The bavarian baby died of smallpox

another treaty was drawn up

The Archduke Charles, the second son of the Emperor

was to obtain The Bulk of the Spanis inheritance

the Dauphing of France was to have Naples and Milan

these Partition Treaties were a surprised for the King

Charles ii of Spain was persuaded to leave all his possessions

to Philps of France

the second son of the Dauphin 1700

Louis xiv accepted and threw over the treaty

Philip was declared King of Spain

Jame's death

1633 - 1701

he recognized Jame's son. the Old Pretender

as he is called as James iii, King of England

Louisxiv recognizedWilliam's title at the Peace of Ryswick

the war broke out in 1702

William died before he colud take part in the fighting

Reign of Queen Anne

1702 - 1714

the great war

succeded to the throne under the terms of bill of rights

on William's death in 1702

her main objective was the Spanish successsion

John Churchill. created Duke of Marlborough

Marlborough's operations

at the opening of the war

,the French were in possesion of the Spanish Netherlands

Marlborough's campaings 1704

the objective: the expulsion of the French from the Spanish Neteherland

conquest of the French barrier fortesses

advance into France

Marlborough's great campaings came in 1704

he planned a great march from the Netherlands to save Vienna

the battle of blenheim

successful attack

it saved Vienna

it destroyed the impression of French invicibilliy on land

the battle of Malaga

the battle of Ramillies

Battle of Oudenarde

capture of Lille, a French barrier fortresses

Battle of Malplaquet

Treaty of Utrecht.

series of individual peace treaties

domestic affairs under Anne

1665 - 1714

the union of Scotland 1707

Whigs and tories

the Whigs were in favour of toleration

the Tories were strong upholdersof the churchof England

they were jalous of the liberties which the Disenters had acquiered

under the Toleration Act

the Whigs upheld the constitutional gevernment

that developed as a result of the revolution

the Tories still had ideas of divine right and passive obedience

the whigs supported the war of the Spanish Succession

all the Whigs were in favourof the succession, on Anne's death

of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and her son Geroge

many of the Tories favoured James ii's son

she had close connection between politics and literature

there were misnisters during Anne's reign

Godolphin Ministry

he had close alliancewith Marlborough

he came to an abrupt termination in 1710

the causes were many

he beacme unpopular

Great Britain accepted the terms of peace affered by Louis xiv in 1706

the queen became hostile to the ministry

she was a person of no intellectual atainments

she appears to have little influence in theadministration of her government

she was perfectli English

she disliked a purely Whig misistry

the Whigs were dismised

the Tories were called to office

Parliament was disolved

in the new House og Commons there was a lare Tory majority

the rise of power among the Tories was important

it was to affect the history of the next reign George i

the two leaders of the part were: Robert Harley and St John

they tried to strengthen the church and to weaken the nonconformists

the occasional conformity act 1711

directed against the habit of the nonconformists

the schism act 1714

to deprive the nonconformists of their hold upon education

Anne's death in 1714

George i was proclaimed King

Scotland under the later Stuarts

1603 - 1714

the condition of Scotland on William iii's was deplorable

it was rent by religiuos feuds

there was little wealth and few industries and bad harvest

the reign of William, Mary and Anne mark the beggining of a happier

and properous period for Scotland

the conditions of Scotland improved after the revolution of 1688

three important things in Scotland's prosperity

Presbyterianism, the religion of the great majority 1689

the Episcopalians obtained toleration

a law was passed in 1696 establishing schools in a very parish

Scotland,long before England, enjoyed a widespread measure of education

the union between England and Scotland was achieved in 1707

the expansion of britain and the final contest with the crown

1714 - 1783

domestic politics

the first two Georges

on the death of Anne, the Elector of Hanover became King

ascended to the throne as George 1

he had no notion of what was princely

Wilst George ii was occasionally irritable

no over generous

he made a present to Walpole hisminister for fifteen years

neither of the two kings was interested in science , art or literature

George ii was attached to Queen Carolina

she died in 1737

she was interested in philosophy, literatura and politics

The Georgian era

1714 - 1830

George i

1714 - 1727

began his fighting carrier at the age of fifteen

commanded the forces of the emire for a short period

during the war of the Spanish succession

came to the throne ata the age of fifty four

did not know english words

should understand or care for British politics

he spent half of his time in Hanover

his influence in Great Britain was small

the succession of George i made the Whigs supreme

the Tories were tainted with Jacobite sympathies

after the succession of George iii

the Whigs remainded in secure possessionof the govenment

the Whigs had an inmense majority in the first Parliament of George i

George ii

1727 - 1760

led a great cavalry change at Oudenarde

fought at Dettingen

both kings were loyal to their friends

theywereabsolute rulers in Hanover

they never overstepped the constitutional limits

imposed upon them in Great Britain

devoted to Hanover and knew more of Great Britain

he was important in domestic affairs

he spoke English with a strong Geman accent

George iii

1760 - 1820

came to the throne in 1760

characteristics of our present system of cabinet gevernment

minsiters were chosen from the same party

became resposible for the policy pursued

became dependent for the continuance of their power

not upon the kings

upon the House of Commons

the crown was still a great force and stiil a real factor

in the administration of the country

the ministers had to serveto the crown and the House of Commons

Britain in the eigtheenth centurywas ruled by a Venecian oligarchy

the wealth derived from commerce

the power derived from the possessions of large landed estates

the Jacobite rising

1715 - 1719

the early Hanoverian period had some unattractive characteristics

in politics there was corruption

in religionwas slept and rotted in peace

its leadres, the bishops were in some cases hardly christians

a period of peace was fallowed by a period of war

in literature, the petry was criticised as being too artificial

the Hanoverian succession

in the Highlands was active devotion to the House of Stuart

Scotland was te centre of the two rebellionswhich took place

the firts risinf was in 1716 Mar's rebellion

Walpole

1721 - 1742

a company had been formed in 1711 to secure the trade sea

in 1719 it offered to take over the National Debt

the sole creditor of the government

in 1736 two smuggñers robbed a custom house officer

was a disorder and stones were thrown at the town guard

Captain Porteousgave orders to fire and some people were killed

he was condenned to death

he was reprieved by the government and the mob

Walpole's Government tried to pas a bill punishing

the City of Edinburgh

oppositionforced on the war with Spain in 1739

Walpol's mismanagement of it helped to secure his defeat

and resignation in 1742

he was a great minister but not the men who fallowed him

the Whigs continued their long hold of office

Cartenet, Pelham, and the Duke of Newcatle were the new leaders

the seven years war: America, India and Pitt

1756 - 1762

the treaty of Aix le Chapelle was a truce

war broke out in 1756

Great Britain vs France

their objectives were in America and India

the britsih colonies stretched along the shores of the Atlantic

to the north lay the French possession of Canada

the Frecn colonists in Canada were 60,000

the Englis colonist a million and a half

the French colony wasgeverned by French officials

the English colonies were entirely separate in gevernment

after the treaty of Aix le Chapelle events moved fast in America

the French seemed to achieve their ambitions

Hence the French began to build a great chain of fortresses

in 1764 the building by the French, near the western boundary of Pensylvania

in 1764 Washington intented to capture it

in 1765 under Bruddock

in 1756 formal war was declared between Great Britain vs France

in India

1757 - 1763

its not a country.its a large continent

its inhabitants speak fifty languages

greatdiversity of customsand manners

they are divide into races

the Hindu religion gives a certain unifying influence

divide into some 3000 castes

in 1767 the empire began to break asunder

India fell intoa condition of anarchy

in 1741 Dupleix was appointed Gvernor of Pondicherry

he took adavantagesin the south of this state of affairs

rivalry between Auatria and Prussia

war of the Auatrian succession

the allies on each side were dissastified with one another

the old alliances were reversed in the seven years war

Austria and France made alliances together and Russia

Great Britain bound itself to Auatria's rival, Prussia

the seven years may be divided into two periods

1766 - 1767

years of failure

the Duke of Newcasttle for long time was chief minister

never does anything

his personal influence over various^^ POCKET BOROUGHS

rehersing members to the House of Commons

he spent his fortune securiting others

it gave him a good position in high office

he and his ministry could not survive the beggining at the war

commanders fought their battles by absolute and formal methods

Great Britain was in terror of invasion

Bying was dispatched with a fleet badly provisioned

to relieve Minorca but was attacked by the French

supported by the advice of a council of war returned

Battle of Minorca

in Germany, the Duke of Cumberland, George ii's son

was sent to protect Hanover and to cover the western frontier of Prussia

from French invasions

he was defeated and forced to sign

he agreed to evacuate the country

the last five years of the war

1758 - 1763

years of glory

Pitt formed a coalition ministry

with the Duke of Newcasttle

he was left to conduct the great war

his name will be for ever commented

he became an opponent first as leader of the Boys

of the Walpole's corruption

and of Carteret's continental foreign policy

Pitt was the real ruler of Great Britain

1757 - 1761

was a great man

he and his son called Pitt did more than any other two men

to rise the Stanlard OF English public life

he had a great views on all things

he held high office from

1757 - 1767

had all the qualities for a great war minister

he combiened supreme self confidence with the power of inspiring others

had capacity for selecting goodmen

he appointed bad officers

Wolfe and Ferdinand were great names

Pitt's strategy was assistance given to the king of Prussia

Pitt's policy was to absorb French energies as far as possible in Europe

he paid subsidies to Frederick of Prussia

he maintained in Germany an army partly British and Hanoverian

in te west of India and the east Pitt's objective was

to protect British commerce

to extend British possessions

he was concentrated in the conquest of Canada

in 1769 the initial successes began

in America three separate armies advanced

the first failed to take the Ticonderogt

the other two captured Louisburg and Fort Duquesne

two raids were made on the French coast

the first went to ST Malo and destoyed a French shipping

damage at Cherbourg

in Germany Ferdinad was able to reach the Rhime

an expedition was sent to west Africa and captured

the French sttlemment of Corse

Pitt planned twoadvances into Canada

Montecalm and Wolfe were mortally wounded

the French were planning the invasionof England

Spain joined France

Pitt had secret intelligence of this alliance

Pitt resigned an Brune became head of the ministry

in 1762 Great Britain captured Havvana

in 1768 the peace came

John Wesley

1703 - 1791

John Wesley's influence on the religion life

similar to that ecercised by Pitt on political life

educated at Charterhouse and Oxford

leader of a small society

his brother was another member Charles

George Whitefield the methodists

John was a minister of Georgia for two years

the newly founded colonyin America

he returned to England and built the first of his chapels

formed the first of his regular Methodist societies in London

he carried the message of the gospel

Whitefield was the greater preacher

John died in 1791

their preaching affected all classes

Whitefield made over twelve journeys acroos the Atlantic

Wesley had a missionary tour in Scotland

the movement which he inicited became indepndent of that church

his doctrines and conversion were disliked by many in the Angelican church

the Chapels were designed to be supplemental to the Paris churches

they became rivals

Wesley began to ordain ministers

1737 - 1784

after his death the Wesleyyans formed in separate organizations

he was a great social reformer

a great religious leader

the founder of a new religious organization

the increased kindliness and humaneness

the development of practical efforts to deal with the problems of poverty

his influence on the religiuos life of the whole English people

the early period of the Hanoverian rule was lacking in religiuos activities

he restored Christianity

George iii

1760 - 1820

long reign of George iii saw many important developments

the king attempt to revive the power of the Crown

the lost of the American colonies

developments in India

the outbreak of the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars

the troubled history of Ireland

he was the grandson of George ii

a popular monarch

he was a devoted husband

an affectionate father

sincer in his religion

he had interest in art and literature

he was born and educated in Great Britain

whilst his fondness for the public schools

his devotion to hunting

his keenness as farmer showed that he shared the interests

of the Englishmen of his day

his education has been inadequate

he colud hardly be considered a learned monarch

sometimes was ignorant in his opinions

selfconfident and obstinate in upholding them

the failure to pacify Ireland

the delay of parliamentary reform

the long continuance of the slave trade

he came to the throne to gevern and to reign

his policy was quite clear

he aimed not at taking away from parlaiment its control over taxation

but choosing his own policy

choosing his own ministers

he aimed control of parliament through a King's Party

it was the Crown's policy in this second direction

brought it into open conflict with those who wished to uphold liberty

first George made of his position was to exercise his choice of ministers

the great Whig party were divided by quarrels

the king could play off one section against the other

Pitt quarrelled with his collegues and resigned

he wished to continue the French war

the country wished for peace

the majority of the cabinet shared that view

in 1761 Pitt left office and the nation went into opposition

his place was first taken by the Earl of Bute

the king's tutor

he was unpopular in England because he was a Scot

he was considered a favourite of the Queen mother

he employed a body guard

he fell from office in 1763 and he was succede by George Greenville

he was a lowyer and used his special qualifications in a most unfortunate way

first he took a legal view of the quarrel with the American colonies

second, he tried tostifle the criticisms which ere being aroused

by the king's government

he beagan an attack to the liberty of the press

the North Briton contained criticism on the king's Speech

at the opening of the Parliamentary session

a speech whcich was read and not composed by the king

the writer was John Wilkes

the editor of the paper and a member of parliament

the government decided that the article constituted a criminal libel

and issued a general warrant

there were arrests

Wilkes claimed as a member of parilament

he could not be arrested for libel

this claim was upheld by the Lord Chief Justice

he was realesed

the House of Commons declared that parliamentary privilege

did not extend to libel, and expelled

before acctions take place he fled to France

the Wilkes case added to the unpopularity of the Government

Greenwille ha made disliked by the king

Greenwille was succededby Lord Rockingham

tried to conciliate the colonies and repeated the Stamp Act

he declared general warrants ilegal

tried to undo the harm Greenwille had done

in 1768 Chatham gave up office altogether

his successor was Duke of Graftam

he resumed the attack on the press

in 1768 Wilkes returned to England and was elected

Member of Farlitment for Middlesex

he was expelled from the Commons

Grafton resigned in 1770

GREAT BRITAIN AND North America

1763 - 1783

George obtainde the minister he wanted and his own prime minister

1770 - 1782

one of the most important crises in our history

the war of American Independence

with the triumph of Wolfe on the Heights of Abraham

began the history of the United States

colonies Assemblies

Great Britain regulated the trade of the colonies to her adavantage

the manufacture in America was limited or forbiden so as

to compete with British imports

the Navigation Act

the protection of the British fleet and army

in 1763 George Greenwille became the Chief minister in Great Britain

he tried to put a check on the vast amount of smuggling

a law was passed to protect the British West Indies

a reserve for the Indians was created in order to prevent abuses and fraudes

in obtaining lands

a standing army

all legal documents should bear stamps

the Stamp Act passed through the British Parliament 1765

Riots a governor's housewas sacked

collectors were burnt

no one use the stamp

Chatham thought that no right to impose an internal tax on the colonies

Greenwille's retirement from office

Rockinghem succeded as Prime Minister

he adopted a conciliatory policy

he repealed the Stamp Act

an AAct was passed at the same time declaring that GB

had a right to tax colonies

the massacre by the colonists

1770 - 1772

indignation was aroused

one of the king's ships was boardedby American colonists and burnt

the perpetrators were never punished

other events brought about war

the East India Company was in reat financial difficulties

was allowed to export its tea direct to America

the declaration of the independence

1775 - 1776

the thirteen colonies broke their allegiance to GB

many people in the colonies did not approve it

the colonies were Englishmen with an Englishman's idea of liberty

and self government

that they rebelled, no other colonists would have done so

the colonies, by the time of the accession of George iii, had grown up

the mother country had failed to realize it

that was the chief cause of the difficulties