HIS 277

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Unit 0: Geoengineering

Project Plowshare

1957 - 1970

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) proposed a nuclear earthmoving excavation project

Project Chariot

May 1958 - 1962

AEC plan to blast Cape Thompson (Alaska), postponed and eventually cancelled because effects on caribou (food source for Point Hope Insuit) unknown.

Unit 1: Innovation and Maturation (Case A: Internet Tech, Silicon Valley)

Edison's "Invention Factory" in Menlo Park, NJ

1876 - 1881

Worked with Western Union, who wanted to externalize the risks of invention and innovation.

Bell Labs opens

1925

Patents were expiring, Bell Labs could now use the products of innovaton

Silicon Valley Boom

1940 - 1947

• Population increases by 676,000, jobs by 330,000
• 40-70% of workforce in components industry

Postwar National Science Research efforts

1940 - 1941

Postwar expansion of research:
• National Defense Research Committee (NDRC)
• Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD)
(Both chaired by Bush)
• Office of Naval Research
• Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)

Military shifts from vacuum tubes to semiconductors

1950 - 1964

• $50 million of military money goes to semiconductor industries (GE, Western Electric, RCA, etc), kills vacuum tube market
• Military $$$ is a catalyst but has constraints

Silicon Valley Tax Code

1950

Encourages putting plants AWAY from city centers

NSF Act

May 10, 1950

"Science elitism": best research gets funded

TI commercialized transistors

1953

TI (Texas Instruments) commercializes the transistor licensed from Bell, launches portable radio market (AM at first only)

ARPA founded

1958

Advanced Research Projects Agency (renamed DARPA for defense in 1969)

Transistor becomes CHEAP

1959

Planar process of etching brought prices down ($150 in 1958, 10¢ in 1965)

Packet Switching invented

1960

Originated as a way to communicate in nuclear war

Moore's Law coined

1965

the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years AKA


“The complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year... Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase. Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such a large circuit can be built on a single wafer.”

ARPANET becomes popular

1975

Email has 1000+ users

Intel's Boom

1975

By 1975, largest producer of metal oxide integrated circuit
***first major high-tech firm with NO R%D lab

ARPANET -> NSFNET

1989

Internet goes private

1995

Result of National Information Infrastructure Act (1993) which let NSF relax rules about commercial access

Net Regulation

1996 - 1997

1996: Communications Decency Act (regulation of pornography, indecency, obscenity)
1997: Reno v. ACLU (recognized internet as free speech, partially overturned indecency clause)

Digital Millenium Copyright Act DCMA

1998

Criminalizes anti-DRM acts

Napster/Grokster Cases

1999 - 2005

Napster: 1999-2001
Grokster: 2001-2005

p2p shutdown

Unit 1: Innovation and Maturation (Case B: Patents)

Galileo's Water Pump Privilege

1594

Privilege: Short description, no explanation needed. Had to be used quickly or lost.

Board of Longitude

1714

Awarded prized for ways to compute longitude

Patent Act

1790

Description required, no requirement to practice

Patent Disclosure

1811

Printed patent application template, with description required -> so people could replicate it once patent term ended

Copyrights

1978 - 1998

1976: Copyright Act (life + 50, 75 if corporate)
1998: Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (life + 70, 120 if corporate created, 95 if corporate publication)

"anything under the sun made by man" decision

1980

Diamond v. Chakrabarty

Bayh-Dole Act

December 12, 1980

Universities can patent publicly-funded research, promoting research and innovation, launching 10x boom of patents, most of which are research discoveries and tools
• MARCH-IN RIGHTS: if they didn't commercialize these patents, they could be forcibly licensed, forcing commercial use

Nobel Prize in Chem, can make lots of DNA

1983

Kary Mullis and PCR

Oncomouse patented

1988

1987: humans can't be patented

Human Genome Project

1990 - 2003

Myriad and BRCA1/BRCA2

1998 - 2013

1998: patented
2010: can't be patented
2011: can be patented
2013: Supreme Court says can't be patented

Unit 2: Systems and Regulation

Private Lighthouses

1820

34/46 were privately built, 22 privately operated

Fresnel Lenses for Lighthouses

1823 - 1852

Much better, but Lewis (Argand lamps) had monopoy, so US didn't get until 1852

Nationalization of Lighthouses

1842

First TransAtlantic Cable

1858

Failure because they didn't pay attention to standardizing electrical resistance

Spread of Metric System

1867

After the World Fair

QWERTY

1868

Patented in 1868, took over market

Electrical Standardization

1881

Compromise between British standard and Siemens standard

Dvorak Failure

1936

Faster/easier than QWERTY, but QWERTY was market-entrenched

Shipping Standardization

1956 - 1966

First trip with new standardizations of shipping containers, super fast, garnered interest from US Maritime Admin (Marad), standard becomes widespread after ISO looks into it

Unit 2: Systems and Regulation (Case A: Telecom)

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

Federal Reserve System

1913

Clayton Act

1914

Creates Fed. Trade Commission

Free Spectrum

1926

Hoover ended licensing rules, opened up spectrum

Radio Act

1927

Created FCC (1934 named), public interest standard

FM expansion

1937 - 1961

1937: 3 channels
1939: 75 chanels
1940: 40 more channels, 5 for non-commercial operators
1945: given new band, including 88-92 (public radio)
1961: stereo standards

FM Radio born

1938

Alt Radio in the 60s

1960 - 1970

FM became alternative to top-40s AM, also Native Americans

FM Goes Mainstream

1980 - 1990

Top 40s, "contemporary hits" move to FM

AM Talk Radio

1987

Repeal of 1948 "fairness doctrine", proliferation of (conservative) talk radio

Spectrum Auctions

1993

Growth of home radio, Sirius, etc after 1997 auctions

Unit 2: Systems and Regulation (Case B: Electrification)

Edison's Electric Light Company

1878 - 1882

1880: started making light bulbs
1882: first commercial generator, didn't charge customers, lost money

Chicago's Population Boom

1890 - 1910

Insull started consolidating electric companies, focused on wiring the home to even out load factor

GE Founded

1893

Thomson-Houston Company (AC) merged with Edison General Electric Company (DC)

Unit 3: Risk and Failure

Insurance

1771

Coffeehouse discussions, ways to help for ventures

Challenger O-Ring Explosion

January 28, 1986

Concerns had been voiced, but discounted

Chernobyl

26 April 1986

Reactor failure on a catastrophic scale (complex, tightly-coupled)

Unit 3: Risk and Failure (Case A: Financial Crisis)

Stock Market Crash

October 1929

Glass-Steagall Act

1933

Separated investment from commercial banks

Finance as a field of SCIENCE

1950 - 1980

Emphasis on "risk" as the key variable.

Dereg. of Mortgages, allows for ARMs

1980

Adjustable-rate mortgages also allowed for flipping houses, people with bad credit, etc

Housing Bubble 129%

1996 - 2006

Repeal of Glass-Steagall (Financial Services ModernizatioN Act)

1999

Commodity Futures Modernization Act

2000

Eliminates lots of gov't oversight of derivatives markets

Housing Fall

2006 - 2008

Mortgage delinquencies pile up, so mortgage-backed securities start to fall....

Unit 3: Risk and Failure (Case B: Medical Technology)

National Practitioner Data Bank

1986

Holds records of malpractice cases, but not open to the public, and hospitals don't always report incidents

Unit 4: Ethics and Expertise

Corps des Ponts et Chaussées

1716

French engineering corps, bridges and roads, first real engineering corps

École Polytechnique

1794

First engineering/technology school

Renssalaer Polytechnic

1823

First professional engineer training in USA

American Society of Civil Engineers

1852

First in a bunch of institutes/societies that act as standards groups (ethics, social responsibilities, etc)

Morrill Act

1862

Gave federal aid to states to support colleges for agriculture/mechanic arts

***THINK CORNELL LAND-GRANT SCHOOLS

"The Rise of the Expert"

1880 - 1920

• managerial corporations, heirarchical setups
• administrative state
• consolidation of professional organizations (AMA, ASME, etc) and licensing systems

Engineer's Council for Professional Development

1932

Accreditation of engineering curricula

EPA Founded

1970

Federal Advisory Committee Act

1972

Uniform standards/procedures to govern advisory committees

ASME loses court case

May 17, 1982

ASME had ruled in favor of a strict adherence to a code, was blamed for a company's failure to enter market because f this code issue

Unit 4: Ethics and Expertise (Case A: Lay Expertise)

Cowpox Vaccinations

1798

Used to vaccinate against smallpox, discovered by observing milkmaids

"Act to Encourage Vaccination"

1813

Mailed vaccine to people who requested it, recognized usefulness of vaccination

Smallpox Eradication (Industrialized Nations)

1914

Beginning of Voluntary Health Groups

1930

• Nat'l Tuberculosis in 1904, just treatment
• Nat'l Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, American Cancer Society in 1930s fund research, but defer to medical expertise

Polio Vaccine

1955

Vaccination Assistance Act

1962

Grants for states to vaccinate

Smallpox Eradication (Global)

1979

AIDS ("GRIDS") reported first in LA

1981

SF AIDS Foundation

1982

ACT UP

1987

AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power

in 1987-88, started targeting FDA for limiting access to new drugs

Unit 4: Ethics and Expertise (Case B: Environmental Ethics and Geopolitics)

Rockefeller Foundation

1943 - 1961

Used American-style agricultural assumptions in Mexico, changed corn crop.
Monocultures, dwarf wheat, etc.