Russia's eastern expansion conflicted with Japanese territorial ambitions, resulting in the Russo-Japanese War. After a Japanese surprise attack, the Russian Far East fleet was destroyed. Nicholas II decided to send his Baltic fleet, which after a 9 month journey was also destroyed. It took great losses before Nicholas II admitted defeat, and in the Treaty of Portsmouth Japan gained a lot of territory.
Following the defeat in the Russo-Japanese war, revolution broke out.
120'000 workers, led by priest George Gapon, march peacefully through St. Petersburg to deliver a petition to Nicholas II. Nicholas II had left St. Petersburg, and his ministers decided to bring in extra troops to reinforce the garrison. The troops open fire against the crowd, and many are killed.
Proposed by Nicholas II.
Nicholas II and the Orthodox Church officially condemned the pogroms. However, privately Nicholas II expressed admiration for the mobs.
By Minister of Finance, Sergei Witte. Completed a series of financial reforms initiated 15 years earlier.
Nicholas II was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for taking the initiative for the Hague peace conference.
The railway still required large amounts of work, but it helped Russians trade in the Far East.
Russian historian Edward Radzinsky argues that many pogroms were incited by the authorities and the secret police, the Okhrana.