Untitled timeline


Indus Valley

2500 BC - 1500 BC

-built along the banks of a river
-mountains limited contact with outside world
-Khyber Pass provided connection to outside world
-2 major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
-strong central government led by a priest-king
-grew cotton and traded it


1500 bc

-began in India with Aryan invaders
-Vishnu: preserver, Shiva: destroyer
-Vedas and Upanishads
-caste system prevented acceptance in other parts of the world


1500 BC - 322 BC

-nomadic tribes from North of the Caucasus Mountains
-defeated population of Indus Valley using horses and advanced weaponry
-established beliefs that led to Hinduism and the caste system
-social structure became more rigid


520 bc

-spawned from Hinduism
-no supreme being
-not dependent on an underlying social structure
-Hinayana = simpler
-Mahayana = Buddha became a godlike deity
-appealed to members of lower classes


321 bc - 180 bc

-founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who unified smaller Aryan kingdoms into a civilization
-wealthy from trade with Mesopotamia and eastern Roman Empire
-powerful military
-Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka hated the violence and converted to Buddhism and made the Rock and Pillar edicts
-this led to the spread of Buddhism into SE Asia


320 ce - 550 ce

-Mauryan Empire declined after Ashoka's death due to economic problems and pressure from attacks in the NE
-revival under Chandra Gupta the Great
-more decentralized and smaller
-golden age (creation of Arabic numerals)
-fell due to invasion of White Huns, culture survived invasion

Delhi Sultanate

1206 ce - 1526 ce

-Islam spread in N India
-sultans tried to convert masses to Islam: non-Muslims had to pay tax, destroyed temples
-colleges, irrigation systems, built mosques
-many converted in north, many stayed Hindu in south


1526 ce - 1826 ce

-Babur (Muslim) invaded N India, defeated Delhi Sultanate
-Hinduism in Deccan Plateau because it was isolated
-Akbar unified India with religious toleration (got rid of jizya, married Hindu woman, let Hindus in government, tried to eliminate sati), golden age
-Taj Mahal built under Shah Jahan
-religious toleration ended, everything reversed
-British domination of trade in region (Calcutta as trading outpost), Mughals allowed trade



1600 bc - 1100 bc

-Yellow River Valley
-trade-centered due to agricultural surplus
-limited contact with rest of world, mainly trading with Mesopotamia
-"All Under Heaven" (superior to everyone else)
-bronze, horse-drawn chariots, spoked wheel, decimals, pottery, silk, calendar
-extended family was very important


1100 bc - 256 bc

-Wu Wang
-maintained many traditions developed in Shang Dynasty
-Mandate of Heaven: rulers would remain in power only as long as they had the blessing of heaven
-feudal system that had a lot of fighting and warfare


500 bc

-founded by Lao-tzu
-harmony with nature


475 bc

-Qin dynasty
-didn't trust human nature
-caused resentment among people


400 bc

-not a religion
-women secondary status
-humans were morally good
-compatible with other religions


221 bc - 209 bc

-strong economy based on agriculture
-powerful army with iron weapons
-conquered surrounding territories and unified the region under a single emperor
-created the Great Wall of China
-Qin Shihuangdi recentralized feudal kingdoms, standardized laws/currencies/weights/measures/systems of wriing, refused to tolerate dissent
-fell when he died at the hands of the peasants


200 bc - 460 ce

-Xiongnu invaded territories
-Wu Ti enlarged empire
-trade thrived on Silk Road
-Buddhism spread
-civil service system
-paper, sundials, calendar, rudder, compass


9 ce - 23 ce

-Wang Mang took power by using Mandate of Heaven
-unsuccessful reforms of land ownership and currency
-peasant uprisings led to Mang's death and end of dynasty


618 ce - 907 ce

-Emperor Xuanzong
-expanded Chinese territory
-civil service exam
-Confucian principles
-tribute system
-paper money, letters of credit
-Wu Zhao, Empress
-it got so big that the local warlords gained power and the dynasty collapsed


960 ce - 1279 ce

-Emperor Taizu
-period of peace
-encyclopedias and histories, printing processes
-civil service exam
-Confucian principles
-paper money, letters of credit
-withdrew to south under pressure from nomads, established capital at Hangzhou
-movable type spread knowledge, gunpowder, junks
-Champa rice from Vietnam led to population growth
-foot binding
-Neo-Confucianism (Buddhism+Confucianism)
-Chan Buddhism appealed to upper class
-Confucianists and Daoists didn't like Buddhism
-filial piety
-fell to Mongols


1279 ce - 1368 ce

-Mongols took over


1368 ce - 1644 ce

-restored traditional Chinese rule to empire
-centralized government based on Confucian principles
-reinvigorated Chinese culture
-civil service exams
-Zheng He led fleet through SE Asia and Indian Ocean
-"single-whip" system led to inflation
-famines and peasant revolts
-Qing ousted the emperor


1644 ce - 1912 ce

-foreign, from Manchuria
-members of lower classes able to rise in status
-supported arts, expanded empire
-fierce protectors of their culture
-controlled trade relations
-trade with Europeans (silk, tea, porcelain)
-rising class of merchants in coastal cities



3500 bc - 500 bc

-along Nile River
-lived in smaller towns
-stable agricultural cycle and food surpluses
-rulers known as pharaohs directed instruction of pyramids
-dependent on trade for supplies to build pyramids, which brought them into contact with other civilizations
-polytheistic, practiced mummification
-first female ruler Queen Hatshepsut expanded trade and raised status of women
-social hierarchy

Bantu Migrations

1500 bc - 500 ce

-farmers in W Africa began migrating south and east
-brought their Bantu languages with them
-spurred by climactic changes
-Jenne-Jeno: first city in sub-Saharan Africa, organized in a form of urbanism with individual communities


1070 bc - 350 ce

-capital at Meroe
-center for ironworks and trade


400 bc - 900 ce

-never conquered anyone
-traded ivory and gold
-converted to Christianity and later Islam
-plow based agriculture
-tribute system
-stone obelisks
-merchants converted to Islam on Swahili coast to facilitate economic/political relationships


800 ce - 1600 ce

-oral literature
-gold trade with Islamics
-caravans across Sahara
-brought Islam to region
-Mansa Musa built capital at Timbuktu
-Sonni Ali conquered and made Timbuktu major cultural center, university

Middle East


3000 bc - 1700 bc

-successful agriculture and river management
-cuneiform (writing)
-introduction of the wheels enhanced trade
-calendar and math
-polytheistic with temples called ziggurats


1700 bc - 539 bc

-overthrew city of Akkad
-Code of Hammurabi (step toward modern legal codes)
-Hittites took over in 1500BC by using iron weapons
-Assyrians learned how to use iron and established a capital at Nineveh and built an empire with frequent uprisings
-Chaldean king took over and rebuilt Babylon

Persian Empire

550 bc - 330 bc

-built a series of long roads, mainly the Great Royal Road


622 ce

-jihad: struggle
-shares common history with Judaism and Christianity
-Mohammad = prophet
-flight to Medina known as hajj
-after death, theocracy under Abu Bakr
-spread of Islam linked with empire
-Shia: Ali was rightful heir
-Sunni: leader should be drawn from broad base of people


661 ce - 750 ce

-after Hasan (hereditary caliph) relinquished his title
-Arabic became official language
-tax on non-Muslims
-attacked Constantinople, couldn't overthrow regime
-Charles Martel stopped advance toward Paris
-built Dome of the Rock
-Shia began to assert themselves more, led to decline


750 ce - 1258 ce

-capital at Baghdad
-built around trade
-system of itemized receipts and bills
-Mohammed al-Razi published medical encyclopedia
-defeated Tang army in Battle of the Talus River 751CE
-made paper, led to universities
-translated classical Greek/Roman works into Arabic
-tolerant of local customs in the areas they conquered
-Sufis: Islamic missionaries that stressed personal relationship with Allah
-women viewed as property, female infanticide
-Quran established 651CE: women gained influence in home, equal in religion, some legal rights
-had to wear veils
-internal struggles between Sunni and Shia
-ethnic differences between diverse groups
-mamluks (Turkish slaves) revolted, established new capital
-external foes: Persians, Europeans, Byzantine
-Mongols overthrow


1200 ce - 1450 ce

-Genghis Khan unified Mongol tribes
-Golden Horde conquered Russia, didn't develop as quickly
-Kublai Khan in China kept Mongols and Chinese seperate
-became assimilated into cultures of people they defeated
-stifled conquered economies
-didn't force unified religion
-spread Black Death
-protected Silk Road travelers
-pony express, postal system, tax breaks for teachers/clerics
-ruthless warriors, horses and bows


1450 ce - 1922 ce

-invaded Constantinople, ended Byzantine Empire, renamed it Istanbul and built mosques
-more tolerant
-persecution grew with empire
-enslaved Christian children and turned them into warriors called Janissaries
-Selim I expanded, said he was the heir to be caliph
-Suleiman I built up military, encouraged arts
-golden age 1520-1566CE
-couldn't take Vienna
-expanded Islam
-rivalry with Safavid (Shia)

Latin America

this includes Mexico


1500 bc - 400 bc

-in Mexico
-urban society supported by surpluses of corn, beans, and squash
-mastered irrigation techniques
-large-scale buildings
-developed system of writing and calendar
-didn't develop in a river valley


900 bc - 200 bc

-in the Andes
-had access to coast (seafood)
-used metals in tools and weapons
-used llamas
-didn't develop in a river valley


300 bc - 800 ce

-in S Mexico and Central America
-collection of city-states, all ruled by the same king
-built pyramids
-Tikal: political center
-warfare had religious significance, goal to obtain slaves (not territory)
-humans were primary source of labor
-majority of people were peasants or slaves
-ridged field system, grew cotton and maize


1200 ce - 1521 ce

-capital at Tenochitlan
-warriors were elite
-majority peasants/slaves, tribute
-built roads
-human sacrifice, religion tied to military
-gender parallelism


1438 ce - 1572 ce

-Andes Mountains
-army, bureaucracy, language, roads/tunnels, quipu
-human labor
-large proportion of population were peasants
-women had larger role in society
-divine ruler
-no private property or writing
-Temple of the Sun and Machu Picchu



1300 bc

-first monotheistic faith
-both a religious practice and societal custom
-spawned Christianity and Islam


750 bc - 146 bc

-mountainous so not much possibility for agriculture
-traded on sea
-wanted to establish colonies abroad for raw materials
-replaced barter system with money system
-city-states (polis), each with a common culture and identity
-Athens: commercial, political, cultural, first democracy (Draco and Solon, enabled by slavery which gave them time to vote)
-Sparta: agricultural, military, women higher status
-polytheistic, gods had human failings
-Persian Wars 449BC: won by Greeks
-Golden Age of Pericles 480-404BC: established democracy and Delian League (alliance), philosophy, Greek drama, inspired Renaissance and Enlightenment
-Peloponnesian War 431-404BC: Athens v Sparta, Sparta won
-Phillip II of Macedon took over but encouraged Greek culture to flourish
-Alexander the Great expanded, then divided huge realm into 3 empires
-spread Hellenism

Roman Empire

509 bc - 476 ce

-geographically well-situated
-patricians and plebians
-representative republic: Senate (patricians) and Assembly (patricians and later plebians)
-Twelve Tables of Rome: civil laws to protect individual rights
-slavery, better conditions in cities
-women could own property, but still considered inferior
-pater families
-Punic Wars 264-146BC: attacked by Hannibal, then they took over Carthage, became biggest power in region
-built road network and aqueducts, enlarged navy
-landowners used new slaves which displaced farmers, causing crowding + inflation + Senate's power weakened = first triumvirate
-Octavius of the second triumvirate became Augustus Caesar and became emperor
-Pax Romana
-distinct groups able to maintain cultural identities
-growth of arts and sciences
-paganism, then later Christianity
-suppression of Judaism
-Nero persecuted Christians
-Edict of Milan by Constantine 313CE: ended persecution
-391CE Christianity became official religion
-collapse due to external pressure, huge size, epidemics
-284CE Diocletian split empire into 2 regions
-Constantine became sole emperor, built Constantinople
-died, empire split into east and west
-west fell due to attacks by Visogoths


30 ce

-their duty to share message with unconverted
-appealed to lower classes and women
-became dominant force in Roman Empire
-women could be nuns and have more freedoms

Byzantine Empire

330 ce - 1453 ce

-centralized government
-Greek language, domes
-Eastern Orthodox Christianity
-feudal kingdoms until unified by Justinian 527CE
-Justinian Code: kept Roman legal principles alive
-arts and sciences, built Hagia Sophia (cathedral), mosaics
-secular rulers headed church

Holy Roman Empire

800 ce - 1806 ce

-Roman Catholic Christianity
-centralized power in church, decentralized political power
-1054CE pope excommunicated patriarch of Constantinople
-Charlemagne centralized power
-focus on arts and education, but religious bent
-Feudalism, three-field system, chivalry, male-dominated
-divided after death by Treaty of Verdun
-raided by Vikings and Magyars, converted to Christianity
-started trading with rest of world, emergence of middle class of merchants (burghers)
-Hanseatic League 1358CE: trade alliance
-interdependence of towns increased social mobility
-Crusades: trying to take over Holy Land and convert people
-scholasticism, conflicted with church
-Universal Church: absolute power (persecution, Inquisition)
-Thomas Aquinas wrote Summa Theologica
-Bubonic Plague killed many, minimized class distinctions, loss of faith in church, shift toward commercial economy
-Magna Carta 1215CE limited power of King John, set basis for Parliament


Yamoto Clan

400 ce - 2014 ce

-Shinto religion, emperor is divine
-522CE Buddhist missionaries brought Chinese culture
-Buddhism followed with Shinto
-Taika Reforms 645CE modeled after T'ang
-rejected civil service, class hereditary not earned


794 ce - 1100 ce

-less Chinese influence, more aristocratic family power
-emperor=figurehead, Fujiwara=power
-golden age, women had more rights


1100 ce - 1854 ce

-developed independently of Europe
-emperor=figurehead, shogun=power
-daimyo/samurai similar to lords
-code of bushido
-women lost all freedoms
-based solely on group identity and loyalty

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 ce - 1868 ce

-before, centralized power emerged with exposure to the west
-rigid social class model
-Christians persecuted, National Seclusion Policy
-Buddhism and Shinto, haiku, Kabuki theatre
-only for domestic consumption

Meiji Restoration

1870 ce - 1904 ce

-Commodore Matthew Perry from US 1853CE, saw how behind they were (steamboat)
-revolted against shogun who signed Treaty of Kanagawa, restored Emperor Meiji to power
-built railways and steamships, samurai class abolished, universal military service among males established
-developed national identity
-quick Industrial Revolution
-kicked Russia out of Manchuria after Russo-Japanese War 1904CE, established sphere of influence
-era of westernization, emerged as a world power