History Unit 1

Coronations and Battles

Battle of St Albans

May 1455

Battle of Blore Heath

September 1459

Rout at Ludford

October 1459

Battle of Northampton

July 1460

Battle of Wakefield

December 1460

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

2 February 1461

Battle of Ferrybridge

28 February 1461

Battle of Towton

March 1461

Edward IV proclaimed King

4 March 1461

Battle of Hedgeley Moor

25 April 1464

Battle of Hexham

15 May 1464

Battle of Edgecote

26 July 1469

Battle of Losecoat Field

12 March 1470

The battle secured the defeat of the poorly organised Welles Uprising against King Edward IV, but ultimately led to the defection of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and the king's brother George, Duke of Clarence to the Lancastrian cause after they were forced to flee the country having been implicated in the rebellion.

Henry VI restored to the throne

30 October 1470

Edward and Richard forced into exile in Burgundy

Edward IV is reinstated

11 April 1471

Battle of Barnet

14 April 1471

Warwick dies

Battle of Tewkesbury

4 May 1471

Richard III proclaimed King

26 June 1483

Battle of Bosworth

22 August 1485

Henry VII is crowned

30 October 1485

Battle of Stoke

16 June 1487

Henry VII dies

1509

Domestic Policy

Cade's Rebellion

May 1450 - July 1450

William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk murdered

2 May 1450

Cade enters London

1 July 1450

York assumes protectorate

August 1453

Henry VI's first lapse into insanity

August 1453

Edward, Prince of Wales born

October 1453

Henry VI returns to health

December 1454

Richard driven out of government

1458 - 1459

Took refuge in Ireland, returned with an army

Loveday

March 1458

Parliament of Devils

November 1459

Act of Accord

25 October 1460

Under the Act, King Henry VI of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry's son Edward of Westminster. Henry was forced to agree to the Act.

Edward IV marries Elizabeth Woodville

May 1464

Edward V born

November 1470

Henry VI is killed in Tower of London

May 1471

Richard made Duke of Gloucester

1472

Gloucester sets up Council of the North

1472

Clarence executed for treason

February 1478

Edward IV dies

9 April 1483

Gloucester arrests Rivers and Grey

30 April 1483

Hastings executed w/o trial

13 June 1483

Gloucester declares Edward IV's children illegitimate

26 June 1483

The Princes in the Tower disappear

July 1483

Buckingham's Rebellion

September 1483 - October 1483

Parliament met

January 1484

To ratify Richard's claim to the throne, to pass legislation leading to the attainder of 114 traitors, to enact reforming legislation to end the abuse of power by local officials

Richard's only son, Edward, dies

April 1484

Marries Elizabeth of York

January 1486

Francis, Lord Lovell's revolt

March 1486

Simnel threat

December 1486 - June 1487

de la Pole meets with Margaret of Anjou and Lovell

February 1487

Simnel arrives in Ireland

5 May 1487

Simnel invades England

June 1487

Yorkshire Rebellion

April 1489

The results of this rebellion led the rebels to receive a royal pardon, and no further taxes were collected, thus Henry was unable to get enough money to defend Brittany. He also became aware of the lawless nature of the North of England, which had been loyal to King Richard III, who had spent more time in the North than any previous King of England.[citation needed]

Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, who was sent to deal with the Yorkist threat, was made into Henry's Lieutenant in the North. With no estates or interests in the north, Surrey was able to spend many years reconciling the region to Tudor rule.[1]

Council Learned in the Law established

1495

Cornwall Rebellion

May 1497 - June 1497

Arthur dies

April 1502

Death of Elizabeth of York

1503

Second law passed against illegal retaining

1504

Foreign Policy

Treaty of Tours

1444

Marriage of Henry VI to Margaret of Anjou

1445

Resumption of hostilities with France

1449

Henry calls Parliament

February 1449

Henry VI calls Parliament

November 1449

Normandy lost to French

1450

Loss of Gascony

1451

French raid on Sandwich

1457

Margaret married Charles of Burgundy

1468

France attacks Burgundy

December 1470

As a result Charles Duke of Burgundy aids Edward so that he can win back his throne and then support Burgundy against France.

Treaty of Picquigny

August 1475

The two kings agreed to a seven-year truce and free-trade between the two countries. Louis XI was to pay a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns.

Henry VI swears to marry Elizabeth of York

25 December 1483

Richard sides against Anne de Beaujeu in rebellion

1485

Irish crowned Warbeck K of England

June 1487

Treaty of Medina del Campo

1489

Alliance between England and Spain, marriage between C of A and Arthur.

Treaty of Redon

February 1489

Based on the terms of the accord, Henry sent 6000 English troops to fight (at the expense of Brittany) under the command of Lord Daubeney. The purpose of the agreement was to prevent France from annexing Brittany.

Warbeck Rebellion

October 1491 - November 1499

Warwick emerges in Cork, Ireland

November 1491

Charles VIII welcomes Warbeck to French court

March 1492

Limited invasion of France

October 1492

Treaty of Etaples

November 1492

Frane agrred: to give no further aid to English rebels, to pay the cost of transporting HVII's army back to England, to pay the arrears of the pension agreed in Picquigny

Treaty of Barcelona

January 1493

Based on the terms of the agreement, France returned Roussillon and Cerdagne to the Crown of Aragon. In return, the Crown of Aragon vowed to maintain neutrality during any French invasions of Italy.

Trade embargo on Burgundy

November 1493

Counter-embargo on England

May 1494

Intercursus Magnus

February 1496

Ended the trade embargo established during the Warbeck threat. The treaty granted reciprocal trade privileges to English and Flemings and established fixed duties.[5] These certainties greatly aided English export of wool, and thus both Henry VII's treasury.

Truce of Ayton

September 1497

Secured temporary peace with Scotland.

C of A and Arthur marry

1501

Treaty of Ayton

1502

Secured by the marriage of Margaret to James IV in 1503,dependent on England's continued good relations with France

Treaty of Perpetual Peace

1502

It agreed to end the intermittent warfare between Scotland and England which had been waged over the previous two hundred years and although it failed in this respect, as the hostility continued intermittently throughout the 16th century, it led to the Union of the Crowns 101 years later.

New Spanish alliance forged

1503

C of A was to marry Henry when he came of age

Henry's daughter Margaret marries James IV

1503

Intercursus Malus

1506

A shipwreck in 1506 left Philip stranded in England. This enabled Henry to negotiate the Intercursus Malus. This replacement removed all duties from English textile exports without reciprocity and with little compensation for the Burgundians.

Treaty of Windsor

1506

United England and Burgundy against France; encouraged Phillip of Burgundy to lay claim to Spain, angering Ferdinand

The League of Cambrai.

1508

This was a league of major powers allied against the city state of Venice. Henry VII was not included in the signatories – the League had moved a long way from Henry’s dream of an anti-Spanish alliance along with finance for a crusade against the Turks. The League of Cambrai did not threaten any of England’s interests but Henry felt humiliated and isolated as he neared the end of his reign.

Treaty of Redon

February 1589

Based on the terms of the accord, Henry sent 6000 English troops to fight (at the expense of Brittany) under the command of Lord Daubeney. The purpose of the agreement was to prevent France from annexing Brittany.

Financial

Introduction of benevolences

1475

First law passed against illegal retaining

1487

Second Statute on Retaining

1487

Henry VII’s Statutes on Retaining merely repeated the Statute passed by Edward IV in 1468. Hence, Henry VII did little to inhibit retaining in the early part of his reign especially as after 1497 things were more peaceful in England so nobles scaled down their armies as they were expensive to maintain. Henry’s approach changed later in the reign.

Lord Burgavenny fined £70,000 for breaking law on retaining

1506